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a man kneeling on his right knee and supporting the sun's disk and horizon with his upraised arms on his shoulders. There is in the British Museum (No. 11,057) a fine example of an ægis in bronze with the heads of Shu and Tefnut, 83, his sister, upon it. Shu is bearded and wears two

. pairs of plumes upon his head; Tefnut has the head of a lion and wears a disk and uræus; B.M. No. 389 is an example of these gods in faïence. Standing figures of Shu, in faïence, have sometimes won his head.


), ,

the god of the Nile, is depicted as a man, sitting or standing, holding a table or altar on which are vases for libations, , and lotus flowers and fruits, he also has a clump of lotus flowers upon his head. The Nile

god. The British Museum possesses a figure of this god, No. 11,069, which represents him standing upright, with a table of

Нарi ko


B. Shmed

Michele That

Нарі, , the god of the Nile.

The Apis Bull.

offerings of plants, fruits and flowers before him.

On his

head he wears

, and in front is an utat se

" the incarnation of Osiris, was the name given to the Antiquity sacred bull of Memphis, where the worship of this god was of Apis worship. most ancient, having been introduced from Heliopolis by

Kakau, a king of the IInd dynasty. He is variously called “the son of Ptah,” “the son of Tmu,” “ the son of Osiris,” and the son of Seker." In bronze Hāpi is sometimes represented in the form of a man with a bull's head, between the horns of which are a disk and an uræus wearing a disk. Usually, however, he is in the form of a bull having a disk and an uræus between the horns ; on the back above the shoulders is engraved a vulture with outstretched wings, and on the back, over the hind quarters, is a winged scarab. The bull usually stands on a rectangular pedestal, on the sides of which are inscribed the name and titles of the


who had the bull made; on the same pedestal is frequently a figure of this person kneeling in adoration before him. Figures of Apis in bronze are commoner than those in faïence. According to Herodotus (II. 27–29) Apis was the calf of a cow incapable of conceiving another offspring ; "and the Egyp

tians say, that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, Descrip and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which tion of the Apis bull. is called Apis, has the following marks : it is black, and has a

square spot of white on the forehead ; and on the back the
figure of an eagle ; and in the tail double hairs; and on the
tongue a beetle.”
When Apis was dead he was called Ausår Hāpi or in

or Serapis by the Greeks, and he is represented on coffins in the form of a bull with disk and uræus on his head; on his back is the mummy of the deceased, above which the soul in the form of a hawk is seen hovering, The place where the Apis bulls that lived at Memphis were buried was called the Serapeum, and Mariette discovered at Şakkârah their tombs, dating from the time of Amenophis III. down to that of the Roman Empire. Above each tomb of

an Apis bull was built a chapel, and it was the series of chapels which formed the Serapeum properly so called.

The Mnevis bull, 157, worshipped at Heliopolis, is thought by some to represent the same symbolism, and to be identical in form with Apis ; he is called the “renewing of the life of Rā."

Mesthå, Hāpi, Țuamäutef and Qebhsennuf, the four The gods children of Horus (see Canopic Jars, p. 194), are common in

of the

Cardinal glazed faïence, but rare in bronze.

points. Sati Da I, together with Ănqet formed the triad of Elephantine, and she seems to resemble Nephthys in some of her attributes. She usually stands upright, holding † in her right hand, and in her left. The British Museum possesses one example, No. 110, in bronze, in which she is represented seated. On her head she wears the crown of Upper Egypt, in the front of which is an

mwach and Chnemu,

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Other forms of Isis.

uræus ; a pair of horns follows the contour of the white
crown, and above them is a star. No. 11,143 is a fine
bronze figure of a woman, standing upright upon a pedestal ;
the right arm hangs by her side, but the left arm is bent, and
her hand, holding an object, is laid upon her breast. She has
the same head-dress as No. 110, and I believe her to be the
same goddess, although she is labelled Hesi-Sept. [Isis-Sothis
or the Dog Star.] Dr. Birch probably had some reason for
thus labelling it, but it is unknown to me. The British
Museum possesses one example also in faïence, No. 13,664, in
which the goddess stands upright.

of the sun, and his worship is as old as the XIIIth dynasty. The British Museum possesses one example of this god in bronze, No. 22,924, in which he stands upright, and has the head of a crocodile surmounted with disk, plumes and uræi, which have disks and horns

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“the leader of the celestial regions," which Shu supports, is usually represented wearing plumes

nn , and holding a dart ; he is at times called neb mäb,“ lord of the dart." The British Museum possesses a glazed faïence pendant, No. 11,335, upon which this god is represented in relief, standing upright and wearing plumes; in his right hand he holds f and in the left the sceptre 1. This sceptre is usually composed of f, i and 1 arranged perpendicularly one above the other. He is sometimes called Àn-her Shu se , “ Ån-her Shu, the son of Rā."

Bes 27, a god whose worship in Egypt dates from a very remote period, seems to have possessed a double character. He is represented as a grotesque person with horns and eyes on a level with the top of his head, his tongue hangs out, and he has bandy legs. He wears a crown of

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