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The Dorians, adhering to the primitive ideas of the object of education, aimed at the development of the bodily powers. The design of Lycurgus was to form and perpetuate in the Spartans a nation of heroes. And he accomplished his object. But his heroes, like the demi-gods of Homer, were rarely able to say their letters. The Ionic race on the other hand, not neglecting physical education, connected with it intellectual culture. The Athenians attempted to develope in due proportion all the powers of the man. Every citizen was to be instructed in the two great branches of education, music and gymnastics. In regard to physical training, the difference between the Spartan and Athenian education consisted in the fact, that in the Spartan system gymnastic exercises, which with them had special reference to war, constituted nearly the whole of education, and were extended through the lives of the citizens ; whereas among the Athenians, gymnastics were used chiefly for purposes of discipline, and when all the bodily powers had been fully developed, were discontinued.* The principal objects aimed at by the Athenians in bodily discipline, were health, strength, and beauty. In securing these ends two classes of means were used.f The first, which may be included under the head dietetics, consisted in a proper care of the organic powers of life by a suitable attention to food, sleep, cleanliness, clothing, and the like. Gymnastics constituted the other set of means. These were designed to act upon the muscular system, and were regarded not only at Athens, but in all Greece, as of so much importance that they gave name if not to education itself, at least to the places where it was acquired. At a certain age, the youth of Athens were sent to the Gymnasia, and committed to teachers, whose business it was to develope their bodily powers by gymnastic exercises. These exercises were such as wrestling, boxing, running, leaping, swimming, riding, driving the chariot, ball-playing, and the like. In all these, the olject was the union of swiftness and strength. There were at Athens several famous gyınnasia devoted to

* The training of the Athletæ excepted ; also such exercises as were regarded as promotive of health or suitable for amusement. Cramer's Geschichte der Erziehung I : 292.

† Wachmuth's Hellenische Alterthumskunde II: 19. ($110.) these exercises. Such were the Ptolemæum, the Academy, the Odeum, the Cynosarges, and the Lyceum. In these gymnasia, at a later period, when bodily exercises were less valued, lectures were delivered. In the Lyceum the Sophists wrangled, and in the Ptolemæum Cicero heard Antiochus of Askalon.

Passing from the subject of physical to that of intellectual education, we find that ihe Athenian system consisted of an admirable combination of development with instruction. The distinction between education in the strict sense, and instruction, is obvious. The one draws out and cultivates the faculties, the other communicates knowledge. In every good system education and instruction, like iwin sisters, will go hand in hand. This was the case at Athens. Among the Spartans instruction was for the most part passed over. Το form the physical powers and to strengthen the judgment, were with them the objects to be accomplished. But the Athenian system, while in the training both of the body and the mind, it aimed at the development of the powers of the man, embraced a great variety of objects of instruction. In their schools were taught reading, writing, pronunciation, grammar, arithmetic, geography, geometry, astronomy, logic, rhetoric, ethics, history, the laws, politics, and in the time of Aristotle, design. As the nation advanced in civilization, refinement, and wealth, the subjects of study, and the ratio of instruction to development constantly increased. The study began by requiring its citizens to read and write, and if in its encouragements to cducation it aimed at uliliiv, it was not that utility which leaves out of view laste and refinement; for Pericles while at the head of the government carried the fine arts by his patronage to the highest perfection. In early times science in its higher forms was not cultivated. Practical politics constituted the central point of all knowledge. It was not literary productions therefore, or scientific investigations which were ihen most highly valued, but oratory as the great means of diffusing knowledge. But the universal ability !o read and wri!e could not but give an impulse to science. The seed sown by Solon sprang up and brought forth fruit. As the power of Athens was ivcreased and her dominions extended, new sources of knowledge and new subjects of investigation presented themselves. Learned men flocked to Athens, and students resorted thither in great numbers for the purpose of acquiring or completing an education. The schools of philosophy became so famous that their disciples constituted little commonwealths. Theophrastus had 2000 hearers, and in the days of Cicero there were more strangers at Athens than citizens. In the discipline of the intellectual powers, the Greeks made use of no other language than their own.* Their national pride led them (and not without some reason,) to regard other nations when compared with themselves, as barbarians, and the languages of such nations, if learned at all, were learned not as a means of education, but for practical purposes of life. Nor were the several branches of natural history and natural philosophy in this point of view, of much service. For these sciences were yet in too rude a state to he employed for purposes of discipline.

Of the studies which are in use among the most polished nations of modern times as means of discipline, mathematics, which is one of the most important, was cultivated for the same purpose by the Greeks. The excellence of mathematical pursuits as a discipline for the mind was well understood by that intellectual people, and in particular this study was esteemed as a highly useful, if not indispensable preparation for philosophy. That this was the view at least of Plato, is evident from the famous inscription over the door of the Academy where his philosophical lectures were delivered, no one enter who is ignorant of Geometry.”+ It is no small proof of acuteness and versatility of genius in the Greeks, that they not only saw the relation between two sciences in many respects so unlike as Mathematics and Metaphysics, but reached the highest eminence in each, and made ihemselves in both for more than two thousand years the instructors of the human race. While on the one hand the philosophical speculations of Plato and Aristotle, after having moulded the mind of nations, still command the attention of the profoundest thinkers, on the other, the Geometry of Euclid remains a text book in the schools.

Among the means of mental discipline, employed by the

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* Anacharsis II : 281.

* Ουδεις αγεωμέτρητος εισίσω. By some this has been attributed to Xenocrales.

Greeks, must be reckoned Music. The relation which mu sic bore to education among the ancients was peculiar, and the estimation in which the art was held, may be seen in the different senses in which the word was used, and in the prominence which was given to it in education. According to Plato, education consists of two branches, Music and Gymnastics-music for the mind and gymnastics for the body. In music is included the whole intellectual and moral development, while the cultivation of the physical powers belongs to gymnastics. This use of the word music, however foreign from our notions of the meaning of terms, is not confined to Plato.*

One reason why music was so much cultivated was that eloquence is dependent on language, and language with the Greeks had important relations to music. And if in oratory music was supposed to be useful, in poetry it was regarded as indispensable. Poetry without music, says Plato, is like a face once beautiful, which has lost the bloom of youth. There is no doubt that music, in the strict sense of the word was in far more extensive use in education

the ancients than at the present day. “Music,” they said, “is a good leader in war, a good companion in civic duties, and a good means of education.” Instruction in music was universal in Greece; or, if it was wanting in any region, it was only in some inland state, and among the roughest tribes. It was not, however, skill in the use of either the native stringed instruments of Greece or of the Asiatic wind instruments, that was chiefly aimed at in this instruction by the Greeks. They believed that music is capable of producing a strong moral impression, and of becoming a powerful instrument in the formation of character. “There is music,” they said, “ in the earth, and music in the stars, and why should there not be music in the soul of man ?" The intellectual part of the Spartan education consisted almost entirely of music without general instruction in reading and writing, and although the Athenian system embraced a much wider range of objects, yet music was regarded as an indispensable element in the education of every citizen. Even reading as it was taught in the schools was a musical exercise, since music was required to distinguish the long and short syllables, and to regulate the rise and fall of the voice and the emissions of breath, by certain rules which had their origin in the musical feeling of the Greeks. The opinion of the Greeks respecting the moral influence of music is seen in the strictness of the laws, in which their early legislators prohibited or allowed the use of certain instruments, and in the vigilance with which they guarded against innovations in a science of so much importance. The enervating melodies of Asiatic Ionia, however, at length made their way across the Ægean and mingled with the simple harmony of Greece. But although these innovations, after having been at first hissed from the stage even at Athens, succeeded at last in establishing themselves there, they met with no quarter at Lacedæmon. “Strike froin your lyre four of its eleven strings," was the decree of the kings and ephori against Timotheus the Sonian, “and corrupt not the youth of Sparta with your soft, effeminate airs." Yet the same warlike people knew how to employ softer measures when such were ihe most useful. Laying aside the rougher instruments, they commanded their troopsto march against the enemy to the sound of flutes, because the fiery courage of the Spartan youth, always urging them beyond the bounds of prudence, needed noi the spirit-stirring stimulus of the trumpet and the horn. “ The hymns of the first poets,” says the Abbe Barthelemi, “inspired piety, their poems the thirst of glory, their elegies patience and firmness under misfortune. Examples as well as precepts were easily imprinted on the memory by simple airs of a noble and expressive character; and the youth, early accustomed to repeat them, imbibed with pleasure the love of every duty, and ihe true idea of real excellence."


* In Crito and other portions of his writings, Plato speaks of Education as comprising two great classes of objects of instruction-music and gymnastics. Elsewhere (as in Clitophon) he makes three, adding ra ypáupata.

Wc turn to another characteristic of the Grecian education

* Der Glaube an die Allgewalt der Musik war in Athen eben so gross, wie in Sparta, und daher wurde auch hier Bildung als nothwendig von jedem Freien gefordert. -Cramers Geschichte Erziehung, I: 275.

† Anacharsis, l1 : 127.

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