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to protect with her wings the deceased within. Figures of this goddess in bronze or faience are unknown to me.

Seb ^ JJ , was the husband of Nut, the sky, and

father of Osiris, Isis, and the other gods of that cycle; figures of this god in bronze or faience are unknown to me.

Serq ^<===> 3$P ^> daughter of Ra, wife of Horus, and

identified with Sesheta and Isis, symbolized the scorching heat of the sun. A bronze figure in the Louvre (see Pierret, Pantheon Egyptien, p. 17; Lanzone, Dizionario, tav. ccclxii.), gives her the body of a scorpion, and the head of a woman wearing disk and horns, by which she is identified with Isis. There is a similar figure in the British Museum, No. 11,629, on the base of which is inscribed

jl ^ A T* "'S'S' ^'ver °^ Life," and a small bronze scorpion. B.M. No. 18,667 also gives her the head and arms of a woman with disk and horns. The figures of this goddess, other than bronze, are usually made of lapis-lazuli.



Maahes (j ^ |1 1^ is represented as a man, lion

headed, wearing a disk and uraeus; a few figures of this god in faience are known.*

# Sec Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 272.

Neheb-ka | Jj U J is a god mentioned in

the Book of the Dead (chap. xvii. 61; chap. xxx. 3, etc.), and pictures of him are found upon coffins. In bronze figures he has the body of a man, and the head of a serpent; in wood he has the body of an animal, and the head

of a serpent, and holds in his paws (B.M. No. 11,779),

in faience he has an animal's body and a serpent's head, and either holds O O outstretched in his paws (B.M. No. 11,795), or raises them to his mouth (B.M. No. 1197). He sometimes wears plumes and horns.


Seker ^3^1 ^| or Socharis, a form of the night-sun, is represented as a man, hawk-headed, holding /\, | and J in his hands; for Ptah-Seker-Ausar figures, see page 215.

There are among the Egyptian gods in the British PolytheisMuseum two examples (Nos. 1419 and 22,930) of a poly- „f° ^res theistic figure of considerable interest. They have hawks'

ithyphallic1 bodies, human legs and feet, each of which stands on a crocodile, and human hands and arms; the front of the head is in the form of a jackal's head, surmounted by plumes and disk, and the back is in the form of a ram's head, surmounted by a disk and uraeus. In the right hand is a whip y\, and in the left an object which I cannot identify. Each group stands on a pedestal with a circle formed by a serpent having his tail in his mouth. These figures have much in common with those described under the name Bcs, and may be variant forms of this god.

Another figure of interest is No. 24,385, which represents a seated woman, with the head of a sheep, surmounted by disk, uraeus, and horns; behind this head-dress is the tail of a scorpion. The right hand is laid underneath her left breast, which she touches with her finger and thumb, and the left rests upon her knee. The Museum of the Louvre possesses


Ta-urt (Thoueris). Thoueris, lion-headed. Sefech-Aabu, or Sesheta.

'In No. 22,930. the hawk's body is more distinct, and has a head, surmounted by a disk, and the feathers of the tail rest upon a hippopotamus.

a similar figure with the addition of a naked child whom she holds upon her knees, and whom she is about to suckle." Lanzone (Dicionario, p. 841, for the figure see tav. cccxi.) thinks that the sheep and scorpion headed god represents Isis, and the child, Horus.

Ta-urt o a. , or Thoueris, was the wife of Set,

and she is usually represented in bronze and faience with the head and body of a hippopotamus, the hind-quarters of a lion, and the tail of a crocodile. On her head she wears a modius which is sometimes surmounted by a disk, horns, and


Sefex-Aabu or Sesheta is a form of the goddess Hathor which was worshipped in Hermopolis, and was also adored in Memphis from the earliest dynasties.

Figures Of Animals, Birds And Reptiles, Sacred To

The Gods.

The figures of animals found in the temples, tombs and ruined houses of Egypt may, like those of the gods, be divided into three classes:—I. Votive; 2. Those worn as amulets either by the living or dead; 3. Those which stood in houses. They are made of bronze, steatite, basalt, faience, wood, wood gilded, lapis-lazuli, wax, and many other materials. Those in bronze, stone, and wood were usually made for temples, and to stand in tombs; those in faience, lapis-lazuli, and other precious stones were placed on the bead-work, or under the folds of the wrappings of mummies, or were worn suspended to necklaces, by the living; those placed in the walls of houses, but which are not sufficiently well distinguished to give many details, were usually made of faience cast in moulds. The animals and reptiles of which figures are most commonly found are:—

1. Ape, dog-headed, ,?Q, wearing disk and crescent, Animals

. sacred to

"sacred to Thoth and Chensu. Figures in bronze, stone, wood the gods, and faience, in which he is represented sitting, sometimes on a pedestal with steps, or standing, are common; sometimes

he holds (B.M. No. 1442), and sometimes a goat (B.M. No. 11,910).

2. Hippopotamus ^ a,, Ta-urt, Thoueris, standing on the hind-quarters of a lion, and holding the tail of a crocodile; figures in bronze and faience are common. The most beautiful example of this composite animal in green basalt is preserved in the Museum at Gizeh, a cast of which is exhibited in the Egyptian Gallery of the British Museum, No. 1075.

3. Cow, sacred to Hathor, with disk between her horns,

4. Lion , couchant or running, sacred to Horus. Examples are very common in faience. Frequently the body of the lion has a lion's head at each end of it, and sometimes there is a lion's head at one end, and a bull's head at the other; on the back, between the two heads, is the disk of the sun, , the whole representing the sun on the horizon cS).

The two heads, facing in opposite directions, are supposed to represent the south and north, i.e., the sun's course daily. An example in which each lion's head has two faces, one looking towards the south and the other towards the north, is figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, tav. cvi.

5. Sphinx y-g*, couchant or sitting on his haunches, sacred to Harmachis. Figures in bronze and faience are tolerably common.

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