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him with the allusion to the Santo them !” In this crowd was Dante, Volto.

“a youth of twenty-five,” says Ben48. The Santo Volto, or Holy Face, venuto da Imola. is a crucifix still preserved in the Ca 110. Along the circular dike that thedral of Lucca, and held in great separates one Bolgia from another. veneration by the people.

The tra

111. This is a falsehood, as all the dition is that it is the work of Nico bridges over the next Bolgia are broken. demus, who sculptured it from mem See Canto XXIII. 140. ory.

112. At the close of the preceding See also Sacchetti, Nov. 73, in which Canto the time is indicated as being an a preacher mocks at the Santo Volto hour after sunrise. Five hours later in the church of Santa Croce at Flor would be noon, or the scriptural sixth

hour, the hour of the Crucifixion. 49. The Serchio flows near Lucca. Dante understands St. Luke to say that Shelley, in a poem called The Boat, on Christ died at this hour. Convito, IV. the Serchio, describes it as a “torrent 23 : “ Luke says that it was about the fierce,

sixth hour when he died; that is, the “ Which fervid from its mountain source,

culmination of the day.” Add to the Shallow, smooth, and strong, doth come; one thousand and two hundred sixtySwift as fire, tempestuously

six years," the thirty-four of Christ's It sweeps into the affrighted sea.

life on earth, and it gives the year 1300, In morning's smile its eddies coil,

the date of the Infernal Pilgrimage. Its billows sparkle, toss, and boil, Torturing all its quiet light

114. Broken by the earthquake at Into columns fierce and bright.”

the time of the Crucifixion, as the rock

leading to the Circle of the Violent, 63. Canto IX. 22:

Canto XII.

45: “True is it once before I here below

“ And at that moment this primeval rock Was conjured by that pitiless Erictho,

Both here and elsewhere made such overWho summoned back the shades unto their

throw." bodies."

As in the next Bolgia Hypocrites are 95. A fortified town on the Arno, punished, Dante couples them with the in the Pisan territory. It was besieged Violent, by making the shock of the by the troops of Florence and Lucca earthquake more felt near them than in 1289, and capitulated. As the gar elsewhere. rison marched out under safe-guard, 125. The next crag or bridge, trathey were terrified by the shouts of the versing the dikes and ditches. crowd, crying : “ Hang them ! hang 137. See Canto XVII. 75.




1. The subject of the preceding adoption of the Carroccio by the FlorCanto is continued in this.

entines at this epoch, but it was long 5. Aretino, Vita di Dante, says, that before in use, and probably was copied Dante in his youth was present at the from the Milanese, as soon as Florence

great and memorable battle, which became strong and independent enough befell at Campaldino, fighting valiantly to equip a national army. Eribert, on horseback in the front rank.” It Archbishop of Milan, seems to have was there he saw the vaunt-couriers been its author, for in the war between of the Aretines, who began the battle Conrad I. and that city, besides other with such a vigorous charge, that they arrangements for military organization, routed the Florentine cavalry, and drove he is said to have finished by the inthem back upon the infantry.

vention of the Carroccio: it was a pious 7. Napier, Florentine Hist., I. 214 and not impolitic imitation of the ark 217, gives this description of the Car as it was carried before the Israelites. roccio and the Martinella of the Floren This vehicle is described, and also reptines :

resented in ancient paintings, as “ In order to give more dignity to four-wheeled oblong car, drawn by the national army and form a rallying two, four, or six bullocks: the car was point for the troops, there had been always red, and the bullocks, even to established a great car, called the Car their hoofs, covered as above described, roccio, drawn by two beautiful oxen, but with red or white according to the which, carrying the Florentine stand faction ; the ensign staff was red, lofty, ard, generally accompanied them into and tapering, and surmounted by a cross the field. This car was painted ver or golden ball : on this, between two milion, the bullocks were covered with white fringed veils, hung the national scarlet cloth, and the driver, a man or

standard, and half-way down the mast, some consequence, was dressed in crim a crucifix. A platform ran out in front son, was exempt from taxation, and of the car, spacious enough for a few served without pay ; these oxen were chosen men to defend it, while behind, maintained at the public charge in a on a corresponding space, the musicians public hospital, and the white and red with their military instruments gave banner of the city was spread above spirit to the combat: mass was said on the car between two lofty spars. Those the Carroccio ere it quitted the city, taken at the battle of Monteaperto are the surgeons were stationed near it, and still exhibited in Siena Cathedral as not unfrequently a chaplain also attrophies of that fatal day.

tended it to the field. The loss of “Macchiavelli erroneously places the the Carroccio was a great disgrace, and

betokened utter discomfiture ; it was 52. It is not very clear which King given to the most distinguished knight, Thibault is here meant, but it is probawho had a public salary and wore con bly King Thibault IV., the crusader spicuous armor and a golden belt : the and

poet, born 1201, died 1253.

His best troops were stationed round it,

poems have been published by Léand there was frequently the hottest of vêque de la Ravallière, under the title the fight.

of Les Poésies du Roi de Navarre ; and “ Besides the Carroccio, the Floren in one of his songs (Chanson 53) he tine army was accompanied by a great makes a clerk address him as the Bons bell, called Martinella, or Campana Rois Thiebaut. Dante cites him two degli Asini, which, for thirty days be or three times in his Volg. Eloq., and fore hostilities began, tolled continually may have taken this expression from day and night from the arch of Porta his song, as he does afterwards, Canto Santa Maria, as a public declaration of XXVIII. 135, lo Re joves, the Re Giowar, and, as the ancient chronicle hath

vane, or Young King, from the songs it, for greatness of mind, that the of Bertrand de Born. enemy might have full time to prepare 65. A Latian, that is to say, an Italhimself.' At the same time also, the ian. Carroccio was drawn from its place in 82. This Frate Gomita was a Sarthe offices of San Giovanni by the most dinian in the employ of Nino de' Visdistinguished knights and noble vassals conti, judge in the jurisdiction of Galof the republic, and conducted in state lura, the “gentle Judge Ninoof Purg. to the Mercato Nuovo, where it was VIII. 53. The frauds and peculations placed upon the circular stone still of the Friar brought him finally to the existing, and remained there until the gallows. Gallura is the northeastern army took the field. Then also the jurisdiction of the island. Martinella was removed from its sta 88. Don Michael Zanche was Sention to a wooden tower placed on an eschal of King Enzo of Sardinia, a natother car,

and with the Carroccio served ural son of the Emperor Frederick II. to guide the troops by night and day. Dante gives him the title of Don, still • And with these two pomps, of the used in Sardinia for Signore. After the Carroccio and Campana,' says Males death of Enzo in prison at Bologna, pini, 'the pride of the old citizens, our in 1271, Don Michael won by fraud ancestors, was ruled.'

and flattery his widow Adelasia, and 15. Equivalent to the proverb, “Do became himself Lord of Logodoro, the in Rome as the Romans do.”

northwestern jurisdiction, adjoining that 48. Giampolo, or Ciampolo, say all of Gallura. the commentators ; but nothing more The gossip between the Friar and is known of him than his name, and the Seneschal, which is here described what he tells us here of his history. by Ciampolo, recalls the Vision of the

Sardinian poet Araolla, a dialogue between himself and Gavino Sambigucci, written in the soft dialect of Logodoro, a mixture of Italian, Spanish, and Latin, and beginning :

“Dulche, amara memoria de giornadas

Fuggitivas cun doppia pena mia,
Qui quanto plus l'istringo sunt passadas.”

See Valery, Voyages en Corse et en Sardaigne, II. 410.


1. In this Sixth Bolgia the Hypo 63. Benvenuto speaks of the cloaks crites are punished.

of the German monks as

ill-fitting “A painted people there below we found,

and shapeless.” Who went about with footsteps very slow, 66. The leaden cloaks which FredWeeping and in their looks subdued and

erick put upon malefactors were straw weary."

in comparison. The Emperor FredChaucer, Knightes Tale, 2780 :

erick II. is said to have punished trai" In his colde grave

tors by wrapping them in lead, and Alone, withouten any compagnie.”

throwing them into a heated caldron. And Gower, Conf. Amant. :

I can find no historic authority for this. “ To muse in his philosophie

It rests only on tradition ; and on the Sole withouten compaignie.” same authority the same punishment is 4. The Fables of Æsop, by Sir Roger said to have been inflicted in Scotland, L'Estrange, IV.: “ There fell out a and is thus described in the ballad of bloody quarrel once betwixt the Frogs “Lord Soulis,” Scott's Minstrelsy of the and the Mice, about the sovereignty of

Scottish Border, IV. 256:the Fenns; and whilst two of their « On a circle of stones they placed the pot, champions were disputing it at swords On a circle of stones but barely nine; point, down comes a kite powdering They heated it red and fiery hot, upon them in the interim, and gobbles

Till the burnished brass did glimmer and

shine. up both together, to part the fray."

7. Both words signifying "now"; “They roll’d him up in a sheet of lead, mo, from the Latin modo; and issa, from A sheet of lead for a funeral pall, the Latin ipsa ; meaning ipsa hora. And plunged him into the caldron red, The Tuscans say mo,” remarks Ben

And melted him, — lead, and bones, and

all." venuto,

" the Lombards issa." 37. “ When he is

a fright and We get also a glimpse of this punishhurry, and has a very steep place to go ment in Ducange, Glos. Capa Plumbea, down, Virgil has to carry him alto where he cites the case in which one gether,” says Mr. Ruskin. See Canto man tells another: “If our Holy FaXII., Note 2.

ther the Pope knew the life you are

leading, he would have you put to politics, that one should correct the death in a cloak of lead."

other, and justice be equally adminis67. Comedy of Errors, IV. 2: tered; more especially as, in conjunc“A devil in an everlasting gårment hath him." tion with the people, they were allowed

to elect a deliberative council of thirty91. Bologna was renowned for its

six citizens, belonging to the principal University ; and the speaker, who was

trades without distinction of party.” a Bolognese, is still mindful of his college.

Farther on he says that these two 95. Florence, the bellissima e famo

Frati Gaudenti “forfeited all public sissima figlia di Roma, as Dante calls it,

confidence by their peculation and

hypocrisy." Convito, I. 3.

And Villani, VII. 13: 103. An order of knighthood, es

Although they were of different partablished by Pope Urban IV. in 1261, ties, under cover of a false hypocrisy, under the title of “ Knights of Santa they were of accord in seeking rather Maria.” The name Frati Gaudenti, or

their own private gains than the comJovial Friars," was a nickname, be

mon good.”

108. A street in Florence, laid waste cause they lived in their own homes and were not bound by strict monastic by the Guelfs. rules. Napier, Flor. Hist. I. 269, says:

113. Hamlet, I. 2:“ A short time before this a new

“ Nor windy suspiration of forced breath." order of religious knighthood under the 115. Caiaphas, the High - Priest, name of Frati Gaudenti began in Italy: who thought "expediency” the best it was not bound by vows of celibacy, thing. or any very severe regulations, but took 121. Annas, father-in-law of Caiathe usual oaths to defend widows and phas. orphans and make peace between man 134.

The great outer circle surroundand man: the founder was a Bolognese ing this division of the Inferno. gentleman, called Loderingo di Lian


have heard in the lecdolo, who enjoyed a good reputation, tures of the University an exposition and along with a brother of the same of John viii. 44 :

« Ye are of your order, named Catalano di Malavolti, ther the devil, and the lusts of your one a Guelph and the other a Ghibel father ye will do : he was a murderer line, was now invited to Florence by from the beginning, and abode not in Count Guido to execute conjointly the the truth, because there is no truth in office of Podestà. It was intended by him. When he speaketh a lie, he thus dividing the supreme authority speaketh of his own ; for he is a liar, between two magistrates of different and the father of it."

142. He


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