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ithyphallic bodies, human legs and feet, each of which stands on a crocodile, and human hands and arms; the front of the head is in the form of a jackal's head, surmounted by plumes and disk, and the back is in the form of a ram's head, surmounted by a disk and uræus. In the right hand is a whip A, and in the left an object which I cannot identify. Each group stands on a pedestal with a circle formed by a serpent having his tail in his month. These figures have much in common with those described under the name Bes, and may be variant forms of this god.

Another figure of interest is No. 24,385, which represents a seated woman, with the head of a sheep, surmounted by disk, uræus, and horns; behind this head-dress is the tail of a scorpion. The right hand is laid underneath her left breast, which she touches with her finger and thumb, and the left rests upon her knee. The Museum of the Louvre possesses

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Ta-urt (Thoueris). Thoueris, lion-headed. Sefech-Aabu, or Sesheta.

In No. 22,930, the hawk's body is more distinct, and has a head, surmounted by a disk, and the feathers of the tail rest upon a hippopotamus.

a similar figure with the addition of a naked child whom she holds upon her knees, and whom she is about to suckle. Lanzone (Dizionario, p. 841, for the figure see tav. cccxi.) thinks that the sheep and scorpion headed god represents Isis, and the child, Horus.

Ta-urt e

, and she is usually represented in bronze and faïence with the head and body of a hippopotamus, the hind-quarters of a lion, and the tail of a crocodile. On her head she wears a modius which is sometimes surmounted by a disk, horns, and

plumes 0.

Sefex-Aabu or Sesheta is a form of the goddess Hathor which was worshipped in Hermopolis, and was also adored in Memphis from the earliest dynasties.



The figures of animals found in the temples, tombs and ruined houses of Egypt may, like those of the gods, be divided into three classes :- 1. Votive; 2. Those worn as amulets either by the living or dead; 3. Those which stood in houses. They are made of bronze, steatite, basalt, faïence, wood, wood gilded, lapis-lazuli, wax, and many other materials. Those in bronze, stone, and wood were usually made for temples, and to stand in tombs; those in faïence, lapis-lazuli, and other precious stones were placed on the bead-work, or under the folds of the wrappings of mummies, or were worn suspended to necklaces, by the living; those placed in the walls of houses, but which are not sufficiently well distinguished to give many details, were usually made of faïence cast in moulds. The animals and reptiles of which figures are most coinmonly found are:

1. Ape, dog-headed, 3, wearing disk and crescent, Animals sacred to Thoth and Chensu. Figures in bronze, stone, wood the gods. and farence, in which he is represented sitting, sometimes on a pedestal with steps, or standing, are common; sometimes

sacred to

he holds , (B.M. No. 1442), and sometimes a goat (B.M. No. 11,910). 2. Hippopotamus

o, Ta-urt, Thoueris, standing on the hind-quarters of a lion, and holding the tail of a crocodile ; figures in bronze and faïence are common. The most beautiful example of this composite animal in green basalt is preserved in the Museum at Gîzeh, a cast of which is exhibited in the Egyptian Gallery of the British Museum, No. 1075.

3. Cow, sacred to Hathor, with disk between her horns,

4. Lion Ass, couchant or running, sacred to Horus. Examples are very common in faïence. Frequently the body of the lion has a lion's head at each end of it, and sometimes there is a lion's head at one end, and a bull's head at the other; on the back, between the two heads, is the disk of the sun, go, the whole representing the sun on the horizon. The two heads, facing in opposite directions, are supposed to represent the south and north, i.e., the sun's course daily. An example in which each lion's head has two faces, one looking towards the south and the other towards the north, is figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, tav. cvi.

5. Sphinx , couchant or sitting on his haunches, sacred to Harmachis. Figures in bronze and faïence are tolerably common.

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6. Bull , sacred to Apis or Mnevis, having disk and uræus between his horns, and the figures of a vulture with outspread wings and a winged scarab on his back. Figures in bronze and stone are more common than in faïence.

7. Ram, 23, sacred to Chnemu or Åmen-Rā; figures in bronze and faïence are tolerably common. 8. Cat

Large Animals

sacred to votive figures of the cat were made of bronze and wood, the the gods. eyes being inlaid with obsidian and gold ; B.M. No. 22,927 has the eyes, and a large number of the hairs of the body, inlaid with gold. The smaller figures worn for ornament by the votaries of Bast are made of bronze, stone, rock-crystal, faïence, &c. ; in the smaller figures the cat is represented

with one

, two, or more kittens, and the top of the sceptre

is often ornamented with a cat.

9. Jackal ta sacred to Ånpu (Anubis), or to Åp-uat. In bronze figures, which are plentiful, he stands on a pedestal which fitted on to the top of a sceptre or staff; faïence figures are not very common. A large number of wooden models from the top of sepulchral boxes are known.

10. Hare fw, sacred to Osiris Unnefer; figures in faïence are common. 11. Sow 535, sacred to Set (?), was the abomination of

A, according to the 112th chapter of the Book of the Dead ; figures of this animal in faïence are fairly common. B.M. No. 11,897 has a head at each end of its body.

12. Hippopotamus S7, sacred to Setor Typhon ; many large and beautiful examples of this animal in glazed faïence and steatite exist in public and private collections.

Horus J. Da

13. Stag Figures in which the animal is repre

sented with its legs tied together ready for sacrifice are known in bronze, e.g., B.M. No. 1696.

14. Hedgehog, a few examples of which, in bronze and faïence, are known.

15. Shrew-mouse, sacred to Horus (?), examples of which are commoner in bronze than in faïence.

16. Ichneumon. Examples in bronze, in which the animal wears disk and horns and plumes, are known, but figures in faïence are rare.

17. Crocodile sa, sacred to Sebek ; examples in bronze

and faïence are fairly common. Birds 18. Vulture

; sacred to the gods. bronze and faïence are few.

; of bronze, stone, and wood, and the hawk wears either the crown of Upper or Lower Egypt, or both crowns united. In smaller figures worn for ornament, it wears a disk (B.M. No. 1889) or 1859); it is often man-headed, when it represents the soul,

and sometimes two hawks are on one pedestal, and each has the head of a man. A form of Horus, worshipped in Arabia under the

name of found in hard stone and wood ; figures made of the latter material are generally found on the small chests which cover the portions of human bodies placed in the pedestals of Ptah-Seker-Ausår figures. When complete they have plumes on their heads. 20. Ibis


4, (B.M. No. 1850), or plumes (B.M. No.

faïence are not rare.

21. Frog and Toad. Figures of both reptiles are common in bronze and faïence.

22. Fish A. The five kinds of fish of which figures in bronze and faïence are known are the Oxyrhynchus, Phagrus, Latus, Silurus, and the Lepidotus; of these the Oxyrhynchus, Silurus, and Lepidotus are the commonest. The Oxyrhynchus fish, B.M. No. 1953, has on its back horns, disk, and uræus ; fish were sacred to Hathor, Isis, Mut, and other goddesses.

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