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he had come to Jerusalem, and had ventured to rebuild its wall that was thrown down by Pompey, had not Gabinius, who was sent as successor to Scaurus into Syria, shewed his bravery, as in many other points, foin making an expedition against Alexander; who, as he was afraid that he would attack him, so he got together a large army, compoled ot ten thoufand armed Tootmen, and filteen hundred horsemen. He also built walls about proper places : Alexandrium, and Hyrcani. um, and Macherus, that Jay upon the mountains of Arabia.

3. However, Gabinius sent before him Marcus Antonius, and followed himself with his whole army ; but for the select body of soldiers that were about Antipater, and another body of Jews under the command of Malichus and Pitholaus, there joined themselves to those captains that were about Marcus Antonius, and met Alexander ; to which body came Gabinus, with his main army soon afterward; and as Alexander was not able to sustain the charge of the enemies forces, now they were joined, he retired. But when he was come near to Je. rusalem he was forced to fight, and loft six thousand men in the batile ; three thousand of which fell down dead, and three thousand were taken alive; so he fled with the remainder to Alexandrium.

4. Now when Gabinius was come to Alexandrium, because he found a great many there encamped, he tried. by promising them pardon for their former offences, to induce them to come over to him, belore it came to a fight ; but when they would hearken to no terms of accommodauion, he flew a great numlier of them, and fhut up a great number of them in the citadel. Now Marcus Antonius, their leader, signalised himself in this battle, who as he always thewed great courage, so did he never shew it so much as now; but Gabinius, leaving forces to take the citadel, went away hinsell, and settled the cities that had not been demolided, and rebuilt tho'e that had been Citroyed. Accordingly, upon his injunctions, the following cities were refioreil. Scythopolis, and Samaria, and Anthedon, and Appolinia, and Jaminia, and Raphia, and Marissa, and Adoreus, and Gamala, and Ashdod, and many others ; while a great number of men readily ran to each of them, and became their inhabitants.

5. When Gabinius had taken care of these cities, he returned 10 Alexandrium, and pressed on the siege. So when Alex. ander despaired of ever obtaining the government, he fent ambassadors to him, and prayed him to forgive what he had of. fended him in, and gave up to him the remaining fortresses, Hyrcanium, and Macheras as he put Alexandrium into his hands alterwards : All which Gabinius demolished, at the perfuasion of Alexander's mother, that they might not be receptacles of men in a lecond war. She was now there in order to molily Gabinius, out of her concern for her relations that were captives at Rome, which were her husband and her other childien. After this Gabinius brought Hyrcanus to Jerusa. lem and committed the care of the temple to him ; but ordained the other political government to be by an aristocracy. He also parted the whole nation into five conventions, alligning one portion to Jerusalem, another to Gadara, that another Tould belong to Amathus, a fourth to Jericho, and to the fifth division was allotted Sepphoris, a city of Galilee. So the people were glad to be thus freed from monarchical government, and were governed for the future by an aristocracy,

6. Yer did Ariftobulus afford another foundation for new disturbances. He fled away from Rome, and got together again many of the Jews that were desirous of a change, such as had borne an affection to him of old ; and when he had taken Alexandrium in the first place, he attempted to build a wall about it ; but as soon as Gabinius had sent an army against him under Sisenna, and Antonius, and Servilius, he was aware of it, and retreated to Macherus. And as for the unprofitable multitude, he dismissed them, and only marched on with those that were armed, being to the number of eight thousand, a. mong whom was Picholaus, who had been the lieutenant at Jerusalem, but deserted to Ariftobulus with a thousand of his men : So the Romans followed him, and when it came to a battle, Ariftobulus's party for a long while fought courageously ; but at length they were overborne by the Romans, and of them five thousand fell down dead, and about two thousand fled to a certain little hill, but the thousand that remained with Ariftobulus brake through the Roman army,andıarched togeth. er to Macherus ; and when the king bad lodged the first night upon its ruins, he was in hopes of raising another array, it the war would but cease a while ; accordingly he fortified that Itrong hold, though it were done after a poor manner. But the Romans falling upon him, he resisted, even beyond his abilities for two days, and then was taken, and brought a prironer to Gabinius, with Antigonus his son who had fled away together with him from Rome, and from Gabinius he was carried to Rome again. Wherefore the senate put him under confinement, but returned his children back to judea, because Gabinius informed them by letters that he had promised Ariftobulus's mother to do so, for her delivering the fortresses ap to him.

7. But now as Gabinius was marching to the war against the Parthians, he was hindered by Ptolemy, whom, upon his return from Euphrates, he brought back into Egypt, making ule of Hyrcanus and Antipater, to provide every thing that was necessary for this expedition ; for Antipater furnished him with money and weapons, and corn, and auxiliaries; he also prevailed with the Jews that were there, and guarded the av. enues at Pelnsium to let them pass. But now upon Gabini. us's abfence, the other part of Syria was in motion, and Alexander the son of Ariftobulus brought the Jews to a revolt a. gain. Accordingly he got together a very great army, and fet about killing all the Romans that were in the country hereupon Gabinius was afraid, (for he was came back already out of Egypt, and obliged to come back quickly by these tu. mults,) and sent Antipater, who prevailed with some of the revolters to be quiet. * However thirty thousand fill continu. ed with Alexander, who was himself eager to fight also ; accordingly Gabinius went out to fight, when the Jews met him, and as the battle was fought near mount Tabor, ten thousand of them were Nain, and the rest of the multitude dispersed themselves and fled away. So Gabinius came to Jerusalem, and settled the government as Antipater would have it; thence he marched, and fought and beat the Nabateans ; as for Mithridates and Orsanes, who fled out of Parthia, be sent them a. way privately, but gave it out among the soldiers that they had run away.

8. In the mean time, Crassus, came as successor to Gabinius in Syria. He took away all the rest of the gold belonging to the temple of Jerusalem, in order to furnith himself for bis expedition against the Parthians. He allo took away the two thousand talents which Pompey had not touched ; but when he had passed over Euphrates, he perished himself and his ariny with him ; concerning which affairs this is not a proper time to speak [more largely.)

9. But now Caffius, after Crassus, put a stop to the Parthians, who were marching in order to enter Syria. Cassius had fled into that province, and when he had taken possession of the same, he made an hasty march into Judea ; and upon his taking Taricheæ, he carried thirty thousand Jews into slavery. He also slew Pitholaus, who had supported the seditious fola lowers of Aristobulus, and it was Antipater who advised him so to do. Now this Antipater married a wife of an eminent family among the Arabians, whose name was Cyprus, and had four sons born to him by her, Phalaelus and Herod who was afterwards king, and besides these, Joseph and Pheroras ; and he had a daughter whose name was Salome. Now as he made himselt friends among the men of power every where, by the kind offices he did them, and the hospitable manner that he treated them ; so did he contract the greatest friendship with the king of Arabia, by marrying his relation, insomuch, that when he made war with Ariftobulus, he sent and intrusted his children with him. So when Callius had forced Alexander to come to terms and to be quiet, he returned to Euphrates, in order to prevent the Parthians from repassing it; concerning which matter * we hhall speak elsewhere.

This citation is now wanting.

CHA P. IX. Arifobulus is taken off by Pompey's friends, as is his Son A

lexander by Scipio. Antipater cultivates a Friendship with

Cælar after Pompey's death; he also performs great Actions · in that War wherein he alified Mithridates.

1. N OW upon the flight of Pompey, and of the fenate

My beyond the Ionian Sea Cæsar got Rome and the empire under his power, and released Ariftobulus from his bonds. He also committed two legions to him, and sent him in haste into Sýria, as hoping that by his means, he should eally conquer that country and the parts adjoining to Judea. But envy prevented any effect of Ariftobulus's alacrity, and the hopes of Cæsar; for he was taken off by poison given him by those of Pompey's party, and for a long while he had not so much as a burial vouchsafed him in his own country ; but his dead body lay (above the ground), preserved in honeny, until it was sent to the Jews by Antony, in order to be buried in the royal fepulchres.

2. His son Alexander also was beheaded by Scipio at Antioch, and that by the command of Pompey, and upon an accusation laid against him before his tribunal, for the inischiels he had done to the Romans. But Ptolemy the son of Menneus, who was then ruler of Chalcis, under Libanus, took his brethren to him, by sending his fon Philippio for them to Ascalon, who took Antigonus, as well as his sisters, away from Ariftobulus's wife, and brought them to his father ; and falling in love with the younger daughter, he married her, and was afterward llain by his tather on her account ; for Ptolemy himself, after he had slain his son, married her, whose name was Alexandra, oni account of which marriage he took the greater care of her brother and sister.

3. Now after Pompey was dead, Antipater changed sides, and cultivateni a friend hip with Cæsar. And since Mithri. dates of Pergamus, with the forces he led against Egypt, was excluded from the avenues about Pelusium and was torced to ftay at Ascalon, he persuaded the Arabians among whom he had lived, to assist hiin, and came himself to him at the · head of three thousand armed men. He also encouraged the men of power in Syria to come to his affistance, as allo of the inhabitants of Libanus, Ptolemy, and Jamblicus, and another Ptolemy ; by which means the cities of that country came readily into this war; inlomuch that Mithridates ventured now, in dependence upon the additional strength that he had golten by Antipater. lo march forward to Pelusium; and when they refused him a passage through it, he besieged the city ; in the attack of which place Antipater principally fignalized himself, for he brought down that part of the wall which was over againft him, and leaped first ot all into ihe ci. ly with the men that were about him.

4. Thus was Pelusium taken. But still as they were march. ing on, thòse Egyptian Jews that inhabited the country, called the country of Onias, stopped them. Then did Antipater not only persuade them not to stop them, but to afford provision's for their army ; on which account even the people about Memphis would not fight against them, but of their own accord joined Mithridates. Whereupon he went round about Delta, and fought the rest of the Egyptians at a place called the Jews Camp : Nay, when he was in danger in the battle with all his right wing, Antipater wheeled about, and came along the bank of the river to him ; for he had beaten those that opposed him as he led the left wing. After which success he fell upon those that pursued Mithridates, and flew a great many of them, and purlued the remainder fo far that he took their camp, while he loft no more than fourscore of his own men ; as Mithridates loft, during the pursuit that was made after him, about eight hundred. He was also himself saved unexpeétedly, and became an unreproachable witness to Cæsar of the great actions of Antipater.

5. Whereupon Cæfar encouraged Antipater to undertake other hazardous enterprizes for him, and that by giving him great commendations, and hopes of reward. In all which enterprises he readily exposed himself to many dangers, and be.

came a most courageous warrior ; and had many wounds al. most all over his body, as demonstrations of his valour. And when Cæsar had settled the affairs of Egypt, and returning into Syria again, he gave him the privilege of a Roman citizen, and freedom from taxes, and rendered him an object of admiration by the honours and marks of friendship he' bestowed upon him. On his account it was also that he confirmed Hyr. canus in the high-priest-hood.

CH A P. X.

Cafar makes Antipater Procurator of Judea ; as does Anti

pater appoint Phafael to be Governor of Jerusalem, and Her. od Governor of Galilee; who in some time was called to an. Swer for himself (before the Sanhedrim, ] where heisacquitted. Sextus Cajar is Treacherously killed by Balus, and is lice

ceeded by Marcus. 61. ABOUT this time it was that Antigonus, the son of

1 Ariftobulus, came to Cæfar, and became in a surprising manner, the occasion of Antipater's farther advancoment ; for whereas he ought to have lamented that his father

VOL. III.

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