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and for doing what would greatly oblige Antony. Indeed, when he came he soon made an end of 'that siege, and slew a great number of the Barbarians, and took from them a large prey ; insomuch, that Antony, who admired his courage formerly, did now admire it still more. . Accordingly be heaped many more honours upon him, and gave him more assured hopes that he should gain his kingdom : and now king Antiochus was forced to deliver up Samosata.


The death of Joseph [Herod's brother] which had been signifi

ed to Herod in dreams. How Herod was preserved twice, after a wonderful manner. He cuts off the head of Pappus, who was the murderer of his brother, and sends that head to [his other brother] Pheroras. And in nu long time he be

sieges Jerusalem, and marries Marianine. § 1.

In the mean time Herods affairs in Judea were in an ill state.

He had left his brother Joseph with full power, but had charged bim to make no attempts against Antigonus till bis return ; for that Macheras would not be such an assistant as he could depend on, as it appeared by what he had done already : but as soon as Joseph had heard that his brother was at a very great distance, he neglected the charge he had received, and marched towards Jericho with five cohorts, which Macheras sent with him. This movement was intended for seizing on the corn, as it was now the inidst of summer; but when his enemies attacked him in the mountains, and in places wbich were difficult to pass, he was both killed himself, as he was very bravely fighting in the battle, and the entire Roman cohorts were destroyed; for these cohorts were newraised men, gathered out of Syria, and there was no mixture of those called veteran soldiers among them, who might have supported those that were unskilful in war.

2. This victory was not sufficient for Antigonus, but he proceeded to that degree of rage, as to treat the dead body of Joseph barbarously; for when he had gotten possession of the bodies of those that were slain, he cut off his head, although his brother Pheroras would have given fifty talents as a price of redemption for it. And now the affairs of Galilee were put into such disorder after this victory of Antigonus, that those of Antigonus's party brought the principal men that were on Herod's side to the lake, and there drowned them. There was a great change made also in Idumea, where Macheras was building a wall about one of the fortresses, which was called Gittha. But Herod had not yet

been informed of these things; for after the taking of Samosata, and when Antony had set Sosius over the affairs of Syria, and given him orders to assist Herod against Antigonus, he departed into Egypt; but Sosius sent two legions before him into Judea, to assist Herod, and followed himself soon after with the rest of his army.

3. Now when Herod was at Daphne, by Antioch, he had some dreams which clearly foreboded his brother's death; and as he leaped out of his bed, in a disturbed manner, there came messengers that acquainted him with that calamity. So when he had lamented this misfortune for a while, he put off the main part of his mourning and made haste to march against his enemies; and when he had performed a march that was above his strength, and was gone as far as Libanus, he got him eight hundred men of those that lived near to that mountain, as his assistants, and joined with them one Roman legion, with which, before it was day, he made an irruption into Galilee, and met his enemies, and drove them back to the place which they had left. He also made an immediate and continual attack upon the fortress. Yet was be forced by a most terrible storm to pitch his camp in the neighbouring villages, before he could take it : but when, after a few days time, the second legion, that came from Antony, joined themselves to him, the enemy were affrighted at his power, and left their fortifications in the night-time.

4. After this he marched through Jericho, as making what haste he could to be avenged on his brother's murderers; where happened to him a providential sign, out of which when he had unexpectedly escaped, he had the reputation of being very dear to God; for that evening there feasted with him many of the principal men, and after that feast was over, and all the guests were gone out, the house fell down immediately. And as he judged this to be a common signal of what dangers he should undergo, and how he should escape them in the war that he was going about, he, in the morning, set forward with his army, when about six thousand of his enemies came running down from the mountains, and began to fight with those in his forefront; yet durst they not be so very bold as to engage the Romans hand to hand, but threw stones and darts at them at a distance; by which means they wounded a considerable number; in which action Herod's own side was wounded with a dart.

5. Now as Antigonus had a mind to appear to exceed Herod, not only in the courage, but in the number of his men, he sent Pappus, one of his companions, with an army against Samaria, whose fortune it was to oppose Macheras ; but Herod over-ran the enemies country, and demolished five little cities, and destroyed two thousand men that were in them, and burned their houses, and then returned to his camp; but his head-quarters were at the village called Cana.

6. Now a great multitude of Jews resorted to him every day, both out of Jericho, and the other parts of the country. Some were moved so to do out of their hatred to Antigonus, and some out of regard to the glorious actions Herod had done, but others were led on by an unrcasonable desire of change; so he fell upon them immediately. As for Pappus and his party, they were not terrified, either at their number, or at their zeal, but marched out with great alacrity to fight them, and it came to a close fight. Now other parts of their army made resistance for a while; but Herod running the utmost hazard, out of the rage he was in at the murder of his brother, that he might be avenged on those that had been the authors of it, soon beat those that opposed him, and, after he had beaten them, he always turned his force against those that stood to it still, and pursued them all; so that a great slaughter was made, while some were forced back into that village whence they came out; he also pressed hard upon the hindermost, and slew a vast number of them; he also fel! into the village with the enemy, where every house was filled with armed men, and the upper rooms were crowded above with soldiers for their defence; and when he had beaten those that were on the outside, he pulled the houses to pieces, and plucked out those that were within ; upon many he had the roofs shaken down, whereby they perished by heaps, and as for those that fled out of the ruins, the soldiers received them with their swords in their hands; and the multitude of those slain, and lying on heaps was so great, that the conquerors could not pass along the roads. Now the enemy could not bear this blow; so that when the multitude of them which was gathered together, saw that those in the village were slain, they dispersed themselves and fled away ; upon the confidence of which victory, Herod bad marched immediately to Jerusalem, unless he had been hindered by the depth of winter's [coming on.] This was the impediment that lay in the way of this his entire glorious progress, and was what hindered Antigonus from being now conquered, who was already disposed to forsake the city.

7. Now when at the evening Herod had already dismissed his friends to refresh themselves after their fatigue, and when he was gone himself, while he was still hot in his armour, like a common soldier, to bathe himself, and had but one servant that attended him, and before he was gotten into the bath, one of the enemies met him in the face with a sword in his hand, and then a second, and then a third, and after that more of them; these were men who had run away out of the battle into the bath in their armour, and they had lain there for some time in great terror, and in privacy; and when they saw the king, they trembled for fear, and ran by him in a fright (although he were naked) and endeavoured to get off into the public road: now there was by chance nobody else at hand, that might seize upon these men, and for Herod, he was contented to bave come to no harm himself; so that they all got away in safety.

8. But on the next day Herod had Pappus's head cut off, who was the general for Antigonus, and was slain in the battle, and sent it to his brother Pheroras, by way of punishment for their slain brother; for he was the man that slew Joseph. Now as winter was going off, Herod marched to Jerusalem, and brought his army to the wall of it; this was the third year since he had been made king at Rome : so he pitched his camp before the temple; for on that side it might be besieged, and there it was that Pompey took the city. So he parted the work among the army, and demolished the suburbs, and raised three banks, and gave orders to have towers built upon those banks, and left the most laborious of his acquaintance at the works. But be went himself to Samaria, to take the daughter of Alexander, the son of Aristobulus to wife, who had been betrothed to him before, as we have already said ; and thus he accomplished this by the bye, during the siege of the city; for he had his enemies in great contempt already.

9. When he had thus married Mariamne, he came back to Jerusalem with a greater army: Sosius also joined him with a large army, both of borsemen and footmen, which he sent before him through the midland parts, while he marched himself along Phenicia ; and when the whole army was gotten together, which were eleven regiments of footmen, and six thousand horsemen, besides the Syrian auxiliaries, which was no small part of the army, they pitched their camp near to the north wall. Herod's dependence was upon the decree of the senate, by which he was made king, and Sosius relied upon Antony, who sent the army that was under him to Herod's assistance.


How Herod and Sosius took Jerusalem by force; and what

death Antigonus came to. Also concerning Cleopatra's

aparicious temper.. § 1. Now the multitude of the Jews that were in the

city were divided into several factions; for the people that crowed about the temple, being the weakest part of them, gave

it out, that, as the times were, he was the happiest and most religious man who should die first, But as to the more bold and hardy men, they got together in bodies, and fell a robbing others, after various manners; and these particularly plundered the places that were about the city, and this because there was no food left either for the horses or the men ; yet some of the warlike men, who were used to fight regu. larly, were appointed to defend the city during the siege, and these drove those that raised the banks away from the wall, and these were always inventing one engine or another to be an hindrance to the engines of the enemy; nor had they so much success any way as in the mines under ground.

2. Now as for the robberies which were committed, the king contrived that ambushes should be so laid, that they might restrain their excursions; and as for the want of provisions, he provided that they should be brought to them from great distances. He was also too hard for the Jews, by the Romans' skill in the art of war; although they were bold to the utmost degree, now they durst not come to a plain battle with the Romans, which was certain death, but through their mines under-ground they would appear in the midst of them on the sudden, and before they could batter down one wall, they built them another in its stead; and, to

all at once, they did not shew any want either of pains-taking or of contrivances, as having resolved to hold out to the very last. Indeed, though they had so great an army lying round about them, they bore a siege of five months, till some of Herod's chosen men ventured to get upon the wall, and fell into the city, as did Sosius's centurions, after them; and now they first of all seized upon what was about the temple, and upon the pouring in of the army, there was slaughter of vast multitudes every where, by reason of the rage the Romans were in at the length of this siege, and by reason that the Jews, who were about Herod, earnestly endeavoured that none of their adversaries might remain; so they were cut to pieces by great multitudes, as they were crowded together in narrow streets and in houses, or were running away to the temple; nor was there any mercy shewn, either to infants, or to the aged, or to the weaker sex; insomuch, that although the king sent about, and desired them to spare the people, nobody could be persuaded to withhold their right-hand from slaughter, but they slew people of all ages, like madmen. Then it was that Antigonus, without any regard to his former or to his present fortune, came down from the citadel, and fell down at Sosius's feet,


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