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-a fortified edi" ,בית הוקף by במות pharaphrase constantly renders
,ישמטת הווך we slhall_read ,ווך least of no use
as were appropriated to the religious rites of idolaters; it is likewise used for intrenchments, or fortifications, on eminences, which seems to be the sense of it here. See 2 Sam. i. 19, 25. xxii. 34. where the Chaldee
, “a fice." Parallel prophecies of Jacob and Moses, p. 150.
It is obvious how well this sense of 777922 suits here. And to the above instances we may add Deut. xxxii. 13. with its parallel, Isa. lviii. 14. and also Eżek. xxxvi. 2.
4. And I will dismiss thy glory-] 721 minuavi-That there is a corruption in the text here, is, I think, scarcely to be doubted. The Gr. versions preserved in the Hexapla render, xaus aPaigatron (al. αφαιρεθησεται, Grab, και αφεθηση μονη) και ταπεινωθηση (al. ταπεινωθήσεται.) From hence I conjecture, that possibly instead of 737 they read 771, because 77 is rendered by the LXX. ταπεινος and ταπεινωμενος. . Admit this, and by separating 7 from the end of nonwy, where it is at
, But onw properly signifies to dismiss, release, or set free. See the learned Mr Peters's explanation of it in his dissertation upon Job, p. 345. We
may therefore render, “And thou shalt dismiss (or, part with) thy glory from thy inheritance, &c. that is, thou shalt no tonger exercise thy sovereignty, or live in thy wonted splendour in the land. But the Syr. and Arab. seem to have read onwy, which is still beľter, and conforms with 1072 477, which follows." And I will dismiss (or cause to depart) thy glory, &c."
Ibid. :--a fire is kindłed] Instead of onn77 two MSS. read 777777, as Ch. xv. 14. And all the Greek versions in the Hexaplar, together with the Chald. and Arab, seem to have done the same. The Syr. indeed follows the present reading of the text. And one MS. with the Vulg. reads m7177, succendisti.
6.- is continually exposed to scorching heats) Literally, “ inhabiteth scorching heats.” See the like phrase, Isa. xxxiii. 14.
8. And is not sensible-] The Masoretes here read 1789, as at ver. 6. and this reading is justified by forty eight, perhaps fifty, MSS. and five Editions; and by the Chald. Paraphrast, who renders, 'im *24. Compare Psalm 1. 3.
9. It is even past all hope ; who can know it?] That is, humanly speaking, there is no chance that any one should trace it through ah its windings, and discover what is at the bottom of it.
10. And try the reins] The LXX. Syr. and Vulg. prefix the conjunction, and twenty, perhaps twenty one, MSS. read yan; and seven
, . Ibid. To give to every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit--] Twenty four MSS. and the oldest edition of the Heb. Bible, together with the LXX. read oring without the conjunction-Sixty two, perhaps sixty five, MSS. and two editions concur with the Masora, and with the LXX. and Syr. versions, in reading 19972 instead of 19772--Also twenty seven, perhaps thirty one, MSS. and two
of the most ancient editions, with the LXX. Syr. and Vulg. read 99099, with the conjunction prefixed.
11. As the Kore, that hatcheth what it did not lay] Bochart (De sacr. Anim. P. I. lib. i. c. 12.) with a great deal of learning contends, that xp is not a partridge, nor any bird known in these
parts. it were wrong to lead persons into error by giving it a name that belongs to a different species. That it is a bird which frequents the mountains, and of no great value, may be learnt from 1 Sam. xxvi. 20. Here it is said to sit upon and hatch the eggs of birds of another species. This want of distinction is indeed common to many sorts of birds ; but the partridge is no way remarkable for it. But where it is done, the young ones, when fledged, are sure to forsake their supposititious dam, and to join with those of their own feather; in which cir. £umstance the point of comparison seems to lie.
Ibid.---and not according to right---] That is, not in a due regular manner, by the blessing of God upon honest endeavours, but by arts of knavery and injustice.
Ibid. In the midst of his days.--) For .579* the Masora reads yona', with the concurrence of fifty seven MSS. among which are some of the oldest, and two editions ; and of all the ancient versions.
Ibid.--- he shall be a felon in his latter end.] That is, he shall have the reward of a felon at last, or shall be brought to condign punishment. This is directly opposite to what Balaam wished, Numb. xxiii. 10. and what every wise man would wish for himself, “a latter end like that of the righteous.” Lys seems to signify a man of blasted character or morals; or perhaps one who by his misdemeanour has forfeited the privileges of a citizen, and rendered himself obnoxious to public jastice; in short,
“ felon." Our translators have generally rendered by “a fool ;" and no doubt such depravity implies folly in the extreme. But by fool we generally understand, not one that goes wilfully wrong, but one who has a natural defect of understanding; and whom we do not so much condemn as pity for the misconduct, which for want of right discernment he is led into. It would therefore be certainly better, if the word 473 were otherwise translated in many passages of the Bible, where, as well as in this, the primary idea of fool is apt to mislead the inattentive, or unlearned reader at least, into wrong notions as to the general scope of the sentence.
cannot help mentioning one, which few English readers I believe have properly understood for the reason beforementioned, and which also at the same time may serve to illustrate what is meant by a man being has in his latter end. In 2 Sam. iii. 33, 34. king David is represented as lamenting over the death of Abner, and doing justice at once to the character of that great general, and to his own innocence, of
any share or concern in his murder. The words properly understood are as follow. " Died Abner as a felon, or malefactur, dieth ?" No; for if he -had, the circumstances of his death would have been different; he would have been led, as such persons used to be, bound hand and foot to the place of execution, But, continues the king, " Thy hands were not
bound, nor thy feet put into fetters. As a man falleth before the face of the sons of treachery, so fellest thou.” That is, thou sufferedst not by a legal sentence; but as many good and virtuous men have done besides, thou fellest by the hands of envious and ruffianly assassins.
12. A glorious throne-] As in the preceding verses was set forth the vain dependence of him who seeks to advance himself by indirect methods ; so here we are taught the solid foundation, which he builds upon, who has recourse to the divine blessing, and seeks to recommend himself to the favour of that Being, to whom Israel was taught to look up for support, and whose kingdom from all eternity ruleth over all.
13. And shall be recorded in the earth for revolters] For 90° the Masoretes very properly substitute 20, a reading which is confirmed by thirty eight, perhaps forty, MSS. among which are those of the best note, and by two printed editions. The meaning undoubtedly is, that those who deserted JEHOVAH should have their names recorded and transmitted to posterity with infamy, as revolters and rebels against their rightful Sovereign. 15. Where is the word of JEHOVAH ? let it come now.
v.] The interval of delay between the delivery of the word of prophecy and its accomplishment hath afforded frequently to unbelievers a handle for scoffing at and questioning the truth of it. They want, forsooth, more im.
. mediate proofs for their conviction. See Isa. v. 19. Ezek. xii. 22, 27. Amos y. 18. 2 Pet. üi. 4.
16. I have not been in haste to outrun thy guidance] Literally, “ Į have not hasted from feeding after thee.” The metaphor is taken from sheep feeding where their shepherd led them. The prophet exculpates himself from having officiously put himself forward, like a sheep thať hastily gets before the shepherd, or shewing any desire of bringing on the evil day, of which he was appointed to give notice. He appeals to God as a witness, that in all that he had spoken, he had only acted the part of a faithful imessenger, of one who knew that his conduct was subject to the immediate inspection and notice of an omnipresent Judge. Is It hath bçen before thee;" I have spoken it as in thy pre
19.--the children of the people] For Dry the LXX. render as if they had read yoy, thy people, 1.08 cou. But the Masoretes read 2777; and this reading is also countenanced by seventeen MSS, and tour editions, besides four MSS. more, which have a letter erased at the beginning of op. By “the gate of the children of the people,” I suppose is meant the gate most frequented by the people, being that nearest the palace, where the kings of Judah held their most solemn courts of judicature. 23.
-----so as not to hear] For ydyw the Masoretes read by transposition yinw, with the concurrence of five MSS. The same is also found in the margin of the edition of Felix Pratensis, and among the various readings collected by Houbigant. Twenty eight MSS. and three ancient editions read inw without the 1.
24.-- thereon] Ten, perhaps twelve MSS. and three Editions with the Masora read 12 for 172.
25. they, and their chieftains, men of Judah, and inhabitants of Je. rusalem-] I suppose it is hereby meant, that both the kings tbemselves, and the subordinate governors or captains, should be natives of the country, and not foreigners.
26.--and from the plain, and from the hill country, and from the south-] These divisions of the country belonging to the tribe of Judah may be found, Josh. xv. 21, 33, 48. and these together with the tribe of Benjamin made up the whole kingdom of Judah, when taken separate from the kingdom of Israel, or of the ten tribes.
See the same enumeration, Ch. xxxii. 44.
27. And go through the gates] For *the Chald, and Vuig. seem to have read X271 or x'3777; which seems to be countenanced by ver, 21, 24. But to 4 carry a burden and go” implies to go loaded with it; and therefore no alteration seems necessary The ancient Bodleian MS. and one more wholly omit 82).
- and has the colicut ; והנחו instead of והנה הוא Masora here reads
The prophecies and transactions contained in this and the two following Chapters successively bang together; and if they are introduced in their proper place (which there is no reason to controvert) these also, as well as the foregoing, must be referred to some part of the three first years of Jehoiakim's reign.
The prophet is shewn first, under the type of the Potter, God's absolute authority over nations and kingdoms to regulate and alter their condition at his own discretion ; v. 1-10. He is then directed to exhort the people to avert the evil designed them by repentance and amendment; and, upon their refusal, to charge them with the guilt of unprecedented revolt, and to foretel their destruction ; v. 11-17, They conspire against him : he protesteth against their unmerited and ungrateful persecution of him, and calleth for justice against them. 3.--and behold he was at work-] monn nwY 1073077---The
; concurrence of five MSS; it is also so found in the Babylonish Talmud, ano. ther Rabbinical commentary, and in the margin of the edition of Fclix Pratensis. But the present text perfectly agrees with the Hebrew idiom, and needs no alteration.
Ibid. -upon the stones --] This is the literal signification of D132877-78, which the LXX. also render &71 TW now ww. There can be no doubt that the machine is intended, on which the Potters formed their earthen vessels ; and the appellation or to 90s, “ the stones," will appear very proper, if we consider this machine as consisting of a pair of circular stones placed upon one another like milstones; of which the lower was immoveable, but the upper one turned upon the foot of a spindle or axis, and had motion communicated to it by the feet of the potter sitting at his work; as may be learned from Eccies. xxxviii. 29. Upon the top of this upper stone, which was flat, the clay was placed, which the potter, having given the stone the due velocity, formed into shape with his hands. The principal difference between this and the wheel in present use seems to be, that instead of the upper stone, a nut or beam is used of about two feet in length, and one in diameter, the foot of which plays perpendicularly upon the nether stone. This beam serves for an axis to a circular wooden frame, like a wheel, joined to it at the lower end ; and on the top of this beam, which is flat, the clay is placed, and the motion given, and the operation performed in the manner above described. It is probable the upper stone was for convenience shaped not unlike this wheel and beam ; and might not improperly have given the name of " the wheel" to the whole machine ; but not of “ the wheels,” as in our English version ; there being but one of the stones that had the resemblance of a wheel.--. Perhaps the Sella parturientium may
have been a contrivance of a similar kind; for which reason we find it called by the same name, 81287; Exod.
4.---of clay.--] Instead of a nineteen, perhaps twenty three, MSS, and four editions, read 700m. Two MSS. read na.
14. Will the snow leave Lebanon, &c.] The two similitudes in this verse are evidently designed to illustrate the unnatural and absurd conduct of the Jewish nation in deserting their own God, and adopting the superstitions of a strange idolatry, in preference to the good old paths which God had ordained for them to walk in. As to the first, Lebanon, it must be observed, was the highest mountain in Israel, lying to the north of it, and having its submit almost always covered with snow; from the whiteness of which it is supposed to have derived its name. See the accounts of modern travellers referred to, Ancient Univ. Hist. Vol. I. Book i. p. 570. fol. The same circumstance is also recorded by Tacitus, Hist. Lib. v. Cap. 6. “ Præcipuum montium Libanum erigit, mirum dictu, tantos inter ardores opacum fidumque nivibus." It would therefore be very unnatural and monstrous, if the snow should quit the tops of Lebanon, whilst the rocks of less height in the adjacent country were covered with it.
Ibid. Will men dig for strange waters, &c.] “ Strange waters" are those brought from distant parts by pipes or conduits, or by canals digged for the purpose. Thus Sennacherib is represented as boasting of his power, 2 Kings xix. 24. “ I have digged and drunk strange waters, and with the sole of my feet have I dried up the rivers of besiegęd places," or rather, “of embankment;" the meaning of which I conceive to be, “ I have caused waters to be brought from afạr in canals, which I have digged for the supply of mine army, which was so numerous as to dry up in their passage even such large rivers, as required a dyke or embankment to guard against their inundations.". Instead of
. I . used, Lev. xxvi. 21, 23, 24, &c. adverbially to signify contrary, or in direct contradiction. By sina are meant the natural streams or ri
So that the sense here will be, " Will men act so preposterously, as to bring waters from a distance by artificial modes of conveyance, rather than make use of the natural streams, which flow through their
are בקרי and קרי .קרי מנוזליס I propose to read קדים נוזלים