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archs to whose resting-place such a memo- characteristic of the period of the reign, rial has been given.
was perfect. The shape of the face was a The axe of the executioner terminated long oval; and its strong resemblance was the troubled career of Charles I., on the instantly recognized to the coins, busts, scaffold before Whitehall. A universal and especially the pictures of Vandyke, by groan broke from the multitude assembled which it has been made familiar to us. upon the sad occasion, at the fatal stroke. When the head had been entirely disenA rush was made to dip handkerchiefs in gaged from the attachments which conthe royal blood as a memento; but the fined it, it was found to be loose, and troops put themselves in motion, cleared without any difficulty was taken up and the streets, and the dismal tragedy ended. held to view. It bore evident marks of This is the testimony of Philip Henry, having been severed by a heavy blow, infather of Matthew Henry, the commenta-flicted with a very sharp instrument. The tor, who was present. The remains were hair at the back was thick, but short, coninterred at Windsor, in the same vault trary to the prevailing fashion of the time; with those of Henry VIII. and Jane Sey. and had probably been cut off for the conmour. A few devoted cavaliers attended venience of the executioner, or after death, the ceremony, and noticed the coïncidence to furnish friends with relics. between the coronation and the funeral of Oliver Cromwell departed this life at their master. On the former occasion the Whitehall, on the anniversary of the battles king chose to appear in a white robe, of Dunbar and Worcester, two of his though this was opposed by his friends as greatest victories. A fearful storm raged contrary to the practice of his predeces in England and over nearly the whole of sors and to popular ideas; for purple was Europe on the preceding night and morn. considered the color appropriate toʻsove- The unchained winds disturbed the waters reignty. He was superstitiously reminded from the Baltic to the Bosphorus; the that, of two exceptions to the rule-Rich- seas were strewed with wrecks from the ard II, and Henry VI., who wore white coast of Norway to those of Italy and satin at their coronations—both had come Spain ; while towns and forests suffered by to a violent end. But Charles persisted the hurricane, from the Grampians to the in his purpose; the third “white king” | Apennines. The Protector had a state was crowned ; and he went to the grave funeral in Westminster Abbey, the cost of in his favorite color. The snow fell which his representatives were afterwards heavily at the time, so as to cover the called upon to pay; and, contrary to the black velvet pall with a silvery mantle, on maxim that “English vengeance wars not the passage of the bier from the Castle to with the dead,” his corpse was disgraceSt. George's Chapel. All knowledge of fully disinterred, for the purpose of being the precise place of interment was after-treated with indignity. Contemporary wards lost, till the year 1813, when, in accounts state that the heads of Cromwell, course of making some repairs, the work. Ireton, and Bradshaw were exposed on men accidentally opened the vault; and, the roof of Westminster Hall, and that the to clear up a doubtful point in history, its bodies were thrown into a neighboring contents were examined in the presence hole, after being suspended on the gallows of the Prince Regent, Sir Henry Halford, at Tyburn; but a tradition formerly existand others. There was a plain leaden coffin ed among the inhabitants of Red Lion discovered, with two more. The former Square that they were interred in the cenbore the inscription, in large legible cha- ter of that particular locality. It is probaracters, on a scroll of lead encircling it, bly true, and not at all at variance with “King Charles, 1648.” It contained a the other relations, for the gallows was wooden coftin, very much decayed, in frequently erected at the Holborn end of which was the body, carefully wrapped up Fetter Lane, within a short distance of in cerecloth. Upon disclosing the face, Red Lion Square. Most likely, therefore, the skin was found dark and discolored; the Protector slumbers his last sleep in the the forehead and temples had lost little or locality mentioned. But though discarded nothing of their muscular substance; the from the mausoleum of royalty and ignocartilage of the nose was gone; the left miviously treated, his name lives in history cye was open and full, in the first moment with far greater honor than that of his of exposure, though it vanished almost spiteful antagonists; and none of our le immediately; and the pointed beard, so Igitimate sovereigns have, like him, been panegyrized by four such eminent contem- expired at Osnaburgh, on the very same poraries as were Milton, Waller, Dryden, bed on which he was born, and was laid and Locke. Richard Cromwell, his son, by the side of his ancestors in a vault beand his successor for little more than seven neath the Schlosskirche at Hanover. months, after a long expatriation spent his George II. departed this life at Kensinglast days, under a feigned name, at Ches-ton, and, under circumstances of some inhunt, where he died peacefully, in the terest, was laid in Westminster Abbey. reign of Queen Anne.
As a proof of his respect for his consort, The dissolute life and disgraceful reign Queen Caroline, who had preceded bim to of Charles II. ended suddenly at White- the grave, he left directions for their rehall, and was justly followed by a neglect- mains to be mingled together. The order ed funeral. “The King,” says Evelyn, was obeyed, by the two coffins being chronicling the event, “was this night placed in a large stone sarcophagus, when buried very obscurely in a vault, under the sides of the wooden coffing nearest Henry VII.'s Chapel, without any manner each other were withdrawn. This was a of pomp, and soon forgotten”—an apt tradition merely at the Abbey, till concommentary upon the wise man's observa- firmed in the year 1837. At that time the tion: “So I saw the wicked buried, who vault was opened, under authority of a had come and gone from the place of the Secretary of State's warrant, in order to holy, and they were forgotten in the city remove a child of the Duke of Cumberwhere they had so done.” James II., a land's, late King of Hanover, which had king for twelve years after his expatria- been buried in it, to Windsor. Dr. Miltion only in name, surrendered his nomi- man superintended the disinterment, which nal sovereignty at St. Germain's, near took place by night. In the middle of the Paris. Vicissitudes, as strange in death vault, towards one end, the large stone as in life, seem to have attended this mis- sarcophagus was seen, with the two sides guided man. He left his heart to the of the coffins, which had been withdrawn, Dames de St. Marie, at Challiot. He be- standing up against the wall. queathed his brains to the old Scotch Col- Windsor was the scene of the death and lege in the Rue des Fosses St. Victor, in burial of the three next sovereigns the chapel of which, now leased to a pri- George III., George IV., and William IV. vate school, there is a marble monument They lie in the Royal Dormitory, to the to his memory. An urn of bronze-gilt, east of St. George's Chapel, where all the containing the king's brains, formerly members of the reigning family, deceased stood on the crown of this monument; in England, have been placed, since its but it was smashed, and the contents scat- application to the purpose of a mausoleum, tered over the
ground during the French with the exception of the Duke of Sussex, Revolution. The body itself was interred buried by his own desire in Kensal Green in the monastery of English Benedictine Cemetery, and the unhappy wife of George Monks, in the Rue du Faubourg St. IV., who was removed to Brunswick. Jacques. Upon the destruction of this Every heart will unite in the wish that building, it was exhumed, and, after being long may it be before another crowned kept for some years in a temporary tomb head is laid low in that regal sepulcher! in the neighborhood, it was transported and that, whenever the event occurs, a to the parish church of St. Germain's, justly-honored and beloved sovereign may where a monument was placed over it by come to the grave in peace, as a shock of George IV.
corn is gathered in its season. These reWilliam III. and Anne both died at miniscences of royalty in its ruins emphatiKensington Palace, and repose in West-cally suggest the moral of the poet: minster Abbey. George I., arrested by “The glories of our blood and state the hand of death while traveling abroad, Are shadows, not substantial things."
From the Quarterly Review,
In an admirable address to the Univer- / himself that "he had been at all times a sity of Aberdeen, Lord Stanhope has re- slower and more painstaking workman cently proved to the students, by numer-than would ever be guessed from the ous happy illustrations drawn from the result.” Pope tells us that in bis boyhood lives of eminent men in the various depart- “he lisped in numbers, for the numbers ments of literature and science, that suc- came;" but if they came unsought, it cess is only to be obtained by industry. was a felicity which forsook him as his unHe repudiated the notion of heaven-born derstanding matured. Though by no genius, if by that term is meant genius means a voluminous writer, considering which spontaneously pours forth its stores the many years he worked at his craft, without labor or study. The greatest Swift complained that he was never at talent, like the richest soil, only yields its leisure for conversation, because he had choicest fruits to persevering tillage. If always some poetical scheme in bis head." there is one branch of excellence which He was in the habit of jotting down in the more than another has been supposed to night, as he lay in bed, any striking be the gift of untutored nature, it is the thought or lucky expression which passed faculty of verse; if there is one poet more through his mind, lest it should be forthan another who derived his inspiration gotten before morning. He recorded from the innate passions of his heated lines or fragments of lines, which he hoped mind, and who appeared to possess the to turn to account at a future period, and power of embodying fervid feelings in allowed not a crumb to fall to the ground. glowing rhymes without the smallest ef- What he composed with care, he correctfort, it was unquestionably Lord Byron. ed with patience. He kept his pieces by Yet in a conversation, quoted by Lord him long before consigning them to the Stanhope, he asserted that it was nonsense press; he read them to his friends, and to talk of extemporizing verse. The pro- invited their criticism ; and his condensed digious quantity which he wrote during couplets, which seem“ finished more his short life is no less a proof of his dili through happiness than pains,” really owe gence than of his fertility. Mr. Trelawny their first quality to the last. As we asrepresents him as spending the larger part cend higher the same truth is equally apof his waking hours in meditating his parent. Milton's studies are revealed in works; and no physician or lawyer in every page of the “ Paradise Lost.” One extensive practice ever followed their of the most original of poets in his concepprofessions with more dogged persever- tions and style, his particular phrases and
His friend Moore, whose songs and allusions may be tracked in all the best tales have a far-fetched prettiness which literature both ancient and modern which indicates greater elaboration, confesses of existed before his day. He who invoked
his muse to raise him to the “height of his * The Speeches of Lord Chatham, Sheridan, Ers- great argument" did by that very expres. kine, and Fox ; with Biographical Memoirs, and sion intimate how vast an effort he conIntroductions and E.cplanatory Notes. Edited by a sidered to be necessary to treat worthily Barrister. 4th edition, 2 vols. imp. 8vo. London, so sublime a theme, as in his Lycidas he
Speeches on Social and Political Subjects, with had declared, that “to scorn delights and Historical Introductions. By Henry Lord Brougham, live laborious days” was the indispensaF.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France, ble condition of fame. Of the habits of and of the Royal Academy of Naples. 2 vols. post Shakspeare we know nothing, except 8vo. London, 1857. An Inaugural Address delivered by Earl Stanhope
that the players boasted that he never at his Installation as Lord Rector of Marischal Uni- blotted a line, which only proves that he versity, Aberdeen. 8vo. London, 1858.
must have matured his conceptions before
committing them to paper. The know-tuitive powers which they never display. ledge of human nature is a matter of ex- Those who enter the arena and engage in perience and not of intuition; and at least the contest know that strength can not be he must have been a diligent reader of put forth without strenuous exertion, nor men if he had been a careless reader of skill be manifested without assiduous books. He must, however, have studied practice. these not a little also, for his language in Of all the attainments which Lord Stanhis poetical dialogue is not the language hope, in his graceful and attractive speech, of conversation alone. Nor is there any showed to depend upon cultivation, none poet whose effusions bear the impress of more needed to be dwelt upon before a more severe thought, which not only im- body of students than that of oratory. pregnates, but sometimes obscures, his There is no accomplishment which even " thick-coming fancies.” If internal evi- when possessed in a moderate degree dence is to be a guide, he, as little as any raises its possessor to consideration with one, could have dispensed with previous equal rapidity, none for which there is so meditation and preliminary discipline. constant a demand in the church, in the
Wherever prose-writers have been re- senate, or at the bar, and none, strange to markable for some particular quality, it say, which is so little studied by the mawill be equally found that the point in jority of aspirants. Dr. King, in his which they have excelled was one upon “ Anecdotes of his Own Time,” which which they had bestowed commensurate was written in 1760, complains that the pains. Those, for example, who are dis want of a proper power of expression was tinguished for the beauty of their style a universal defect in the English nation. have acquired their skill as the artist ac- Many admirable scholars whom he had quires his power of drawing—not by con- known could not speak with propriety in tenting themselves with the first rude and a common conversation, whereas among rapid draught, but by repeated references the French and Italians he had met with to better models, by an incessant renewal few learned men who did not talk with of their attempts, and by the untiring cor. ease and elegance. The only three perrection of defects. Every one knows that sons of his acquaintance among our own Pascal wrote each of his “ Provincial Let- countrymen who expressed themselves in ters” many times over. The draught of a manner which would have been prohis “ Epoques de la Nature” which Buf- nounced excellent if every thing they utfon sent to the press was the eleventh. tered had been committed to writing, The Benedictine editor of Bossuet's works were Bishop Atterbury, Dr. Gower,* and stated that his manuscripts were bleared Dr. Johnson. That his pupils might acover with such numerous interlineations quire the art of speaking with correctness that they were nearly illegible. Burke and facility, he used to recommend them penned his political pamphlets three times to get by heart a page of some English at least before they were put into type, classic every morning, and the method was and then he required to have a large mar- often attended with complete success. gin for his manifold corrections. Sterne There is still the same disproportion as in was incessantly employed for six months his day between the extensive learning of in perfecting one very diminutive volume. the educated classes and their capability "I mention this,” says Paley, to whom of imparting it. Great pains are taken at we owe our knowledge of the fact, “ for our schools and universities to obtain the sake of those who are not sufficiently knowledge, but upon the mode of convey. apprised that in writing, as in many other ing it in a way which shall be pleasing and things, ease is not the result of negligence, forcible, no pains are bestowed at all. It but the perfection of art.” The proposi- is as if years should be spent in collecting tion that uncommon excellence arises from materials for the construction of a mighty the concurrence of great talents with great edifice without any attempt to dispose industry is supported by so many exam- them in an order which would secure ples that they might be produced by the beauty, strength, or convenience. Lord score. The extraordinary effect, indeed, Chesterfield was forever impressing upon of sustained application might almost seem his son the necessity, if he wished to be to countenance the saying of Buffon, that listened to, of acquiring an elegant style * genius was patience.” The idle may dream over the fancied possession of in- * He was Provost of Worcester College, Oxford. and a good delivery. He appealed to the school, will never be conducted in any instances within his own experience of the marked degree through the medium of applause which followed those who pos- books. Their chief instruction must be sessed these advantages, and of the use oral, and in many parishes the clergy lessness without them of the most solid have adopted the practice of giving secuacquirements. Lord Townshend, he said, lar lectures, which succeed or fail in exact who invariably spoke with sound argu- proportion as the lecturer is a proficient ment and abundant knowledge, was heard in the art of speaking. Tawdry bombast with impatience and ridicule, because his and low humor will, indeed, excite the diction was always vulgar and frequently admiration of unrefined rustics as well as ungrammatical, his cadences false, and his the higher products of the intellect, but voice inharmonious; whereas the Duke no learning, however abundant, ever comof Argyle, whose matter was flimsy, and mands the ears of these audiences, unless hisreasoning the weakest ever addressed it is set off by some extrinsic charm. A to an intelligent assembly, “charmed, gulf is left between the mind of the speakwarmed, and ravished his audience,” by er and that of the hearer, and until this a noble air, a melodious voice, a just em- strait can be bridged, the long antecedent phasis, and a polished style. Lord Cow-journey is more than half in vain. Nor per and Sir William Wyndham prevailed need there be any fear that, if elocution chiefly by the same means. By his own and style were more cultivated, a torrent account, Lord Chesterfield himself afford- of tedious declamation would be let loose ed an illustration of the truth of his posi- upon the world. Study, by improving tion when he introduced his bill into the taste, increases fastidiousness; and is raHouse of Lords for reforming the Calen- ther calculated to check than to encourdar. He knew little of the matter, and age an ill-timed loquacity. Clergymen resolved to supply the deficiency by well- and lawyers, at all events, are obliged by rounded periods, and a careful delivery. their calling to address public assemblies; “ This,” he continues, “succeeded, and and the sole question which remains to ever will succeed; they thought I inform- them is, whether they will do it well or
ill. them affirmed that I had made the whole The vulgar, said Lord Chesterfield, look very clear to them when, God knows, I upon a fine speaker as a supernatural behad not even attempted it.” Lord Mac- ing, and endowed with some peculiar gift clesfield, who was a profound astronomer, of heaven. He himself maintained that a followed, and with a perfect mastery of good speaker was as much a mechanic as the subject, and with as much lucidity as a good shoemaker, and that the two the question permitted, furnished a real trades were equally to be learned by the explanation of it, but, as his sentences were same amount of application. In this there not so good as those of Lord Chesterfield, was some degree of exaggeration, but he “the preference,” says the latter, was was much nearer the truth that those who most unanimously though most unjustly are deterred from every attempt to imgiven to me.” Upon every occasion he prove by the erroneous idea that unless had found, in like manner, that weight the power is intuitive it never can be acwithout lustre was lead.
quired. They might consider by what The total inattention to this truth is long repeated efforts a child learns to talk not, therefore, a matter of inferior mo- and read, or the years they pored over ment. Hundreds of ripe scholars are un- Greek and Latin before they gained a able in consequence to bring their attain- mastery over these tongues, and they ments to bear upon the understandings of would not infer, because they felt no inthose whom it is their business to inform. herent aptitude for speaking, that, thereUnadorned sense, dry reasoning, a hard, fore, nature had denied them the capaciflat, and colorless style make no impres- ty. So much is it a matter of industry sion except that of weariness. It is not that, if any school-boy were asked to se only in Parliament and the pulpit that lect the most conspicuous example of de the faculty is required of rendering know- fects subdued and excellence attained by ledge and argument attractive. Those indefatigable perseverance, he would cerwho observe the effects upon the lower tainly name the first of orators. The orders of bodily toil, must be sensible that most eloquent of Romans went through a their education, from the time they leave training as severe as that of the illustri