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inside of the cover is a projection about two inches deep, which is carefully chiselled to fit a hollow corresponding in size in the sarcophagus, and after the cover was lowered upon it, a layer of fine cement was run in between, and the sarcophagus became hermetically sealed. Not content with this, holes were drilled sideways through the cover and the sarcophagus, and into these pegs of wood were driven. Covers have usually at each end one or more projections, whereby it is easy to lift them; the magnificent sarcophagus of Chufu-ānch (IVth dynasty), preserved at Gîzeh," has two rounded projections at each end of the cover. The sarcophagus of Mycerinus (IVth dynasty) found in his pyramid at Gizeh resembled a small building ; it was beautifully sculptured, but was absolutely without ornament. Sarcophagi of this period have their sides made to represent the openings, vestibules, and doors of mastabas, and the inscriptions upon them usually contain only the names and titles of their owners, and prayers that sepulchral gifts may be made to the deceased on the specified festivals. Of the sarcophagi of the VII-Xth dynasties nothing is known.

During the XIth and XIIth dynasties, rectangular wooden Sarcoffins seem to have superseded, in some measure, stone cophagi sarcophagi, royal examples of which of this period are Middle

Empire. unknown. A granite sarcophagus of this period at Florence resembles in form, style of inscription, etc., those of the first six dynasties.

Sarcophagi from the XIIIth to the XVIIth dynasty are unknown.

In the XVIIIth dynasty the sarcophagi of Memphis are in the form of a mummy, and are made of granite; they are very sparingly ornamented.

A perpendicular line of inscription runs from the breast to the feet, and the surface of the cover on each side of it is divided by three or more lines of inscription at right angles to it into sections on which are inscribed figures of gods. The sarcophagus of Ai is a good example of the work of this period.?

| For a cast see B.M. No: un.
? For a scale drawing and inscriptions, see Lepsius, Denkmäler, Bl. 113d-g.

In the XIXth dynasty sarcophagi become somewhat smaller, but otherwise differ very little from those of the

preceding dynasty. They are usually made of granite, Sar- but alabaster, as in that of Seti I., was also used. This cophagus of Seti I. magnificent object and its cover were inscribed inside and

out with scenes and inscriptions from the “Book of being in the Underworld,” inlaid with a pigment of a light greenishblue colour. The cover was broken in trying to open it, but the sarcophagus itself is intact, and is preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum ; the inscriptions were published by Bonomi, Sarcophagus of Oi Meneptah, London, 1864, and for translations see Records of the Past, vol. X., pp. 79 ff. The chief idea which underlies these scenes is that, just as the life of a man is identified with the course of the sun by day, so the life of the soul after death is identified with the passage of the sun in the nether-world, through which he was supposed to travel during the night. The scenes represent the various parts of the nether-world, and the beings who dwell in them: Isis and Nephthys, Horus the son of Isis and Osiris, Seb and Nut, the four children of Horus, are all inscribed on sarcophagi of this period, and all were supposed to assist in protecting the deceased, who was identified with Osiris. In this dynasty, large, painted, wooden sarcophagi, in the form of mummies, are also common at

Thebes. Cover of In the XXth dynasty, granite was much used for sarcoSar

phagi, but the form has changed, and the deceased is cophagus of Ra- represented lying on the cover. He wears a thick, square meses III.

beard, his hands are freed from their bandages, and hold in them

and appear, and on the sides of the sarcophagus are figures of the four children of Horus and of other funereal gods. A most interesting example of this period is the sarcophagus of Rameses III., which is made in the form of a cartouche O; the cover is preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum (for a description of it see the Catalogue), and the sarcophagus is in the Museum of the Louvre. On the head, outside, is the figure of Nephthys, with outstretched wings, emblematic of her protection of Osiris ; the inscriptions give the names and titles of the king, and refer to the course of the sun in the nether-world. On the other side, by the feet, is Isis, also with outstretched wings; on one side is Åp-uat, and on the other Anubis, each jackal-headed. The two sides are ornamented with scenes and inscriptions referring to the passage of the sun, who is being towed along in his boat through the various divisions of the nether-world by their gods, and to his attack, defeat, and slaughter of Apepi, his chief enemy. Two scenes at the feet, in which Neith and Isis promise to put together the limbs of Osiris, complete the ornamentation of the outside.? At the head, inside, are the solar disk, a mummy with a disk and star on his head, and a head of a goddess on each side holding out an arm, the hand of which supports a being who pours out water on the head of the deceased in the form of a mummy.

On the sides are figures of an ithyphallic god, hawks, etc., forming scenes from the "Book of being in the Under-world.” At the foot is the god Cheperá in a disk around which are twined the folds of a serpent; above is the head of a ram being adored by figures of the king, by the sides of which are the cartouches of Rameses III. On the bottom of the sarcophagus is the figure of Hathor, goddess of Amenta, with wings outstretched to receive the deceased.

The sarcophagi of the XXVIth dynasty are usually rectangular, and are made of green and black basalt, and variegated hard stone. Many of the scenes and inscriptions upon them are copied from sarcophagi of the XIXth and XXth dynasties, but long extracts from the Book of the Dead are characteristic of this period, and some sarcophagi Sarare covered entirely with such funereal inscriptions, * with cophagi of the exception of the spaces occupied by the figures of the Empire. deceased and Nut, on the outside and inside of the cover respectively, and the figure of Hathor on the bottom inside.

For a fuller description of this sarcophagus see De Rougé, Notice des Monuments au Musée du Louvre, Paris, 1872, pp. 173-175, and Seyffarth, Beiträge, 2-5, Bl. 6.

E.g., the sarcophagus of Anch-nes-nefer-åb-Rā, B.M. No. 32.

Such sarcophagi are beautifully sculptured, carefully inscribed, and the attention given to detail is marvellous.

After the XXVIth dynasty sarcophagi are sometimes rounded at the head, and the covers have human faces; they are ornamented with rows of figures of gods, the four children of Horus, a number of genii of the netherworld, and inscriptions which state that they have taken the deceased under their protection. Rectangular sarcophagi which taper slightly towards the feet, and are narrower at the base than at the top, are also common.

In the XXXth dynasty massive sarcophagi of granite, basalt and agglomerate, highly polished and beautifully sculptured, become very plentiful; they are found chiefly in Lower Egypt. The inscriptions and scenes upon them are extracts, more or less complete, from the “ Book of being in the Under-world," and, in arrangement, they greatly resemble those of the earlier dynasties; a fine example of this period is the sarcophagus of Nectanebus I., B.M. No. 10.

Under the rule of the Ptolemies and Romans wooden sarcophagi became very common; they consisted of two parts, viz., the board upon which the deceased in his coffin was laid, and the rectangular, vaulted cover, which is, at times, as much as eighteen inches high. The planks from which the covers are made are rarely more than an inch thick, and they are let into four rectangular uprights, which are often made of a hard wood with a fine texture. The vaulted cover has, at times, a gilded hawk upon the top, and a cornice running round the four sides; it was fastened to the board, upon which the coffin stood, by its uprights, one at each corner, which, projecting slightly below the lower edge of the sides, fitted into four rectangular cavities cut in the board. The inside and outside of the vaulted cover are painted in gaudy colours with figures of the gods, the signs of the Zodiac, and inscriptions in hieroglyphics; when the deceased was a Greek, his name and that of his father were also inscribed in Greek The mummies which belong to such coffins are covered over with a linen cloth on which is painted the god Osiris, with the features of the deceased, wearing the atef crown, and holding and A;

Sarcophagi of the GræcoRoman period.

on each

side of him are two of the children of Horus. The scenes and inscriptions on the sarcophagi of this period show that the people of Egypt had ceased to attach any importance to their meaning, and they appear simply as funereal decorations, without which the sarcophagi would have been incomplete.




The extreme care which the Egyptians took to preserve the bodies of their dead would have been all in vain, if they had not provided secure resting places for their mummies. To guard the mummy intact and ready for the return of the Double soul, it was necessary to provide tombs which should be purpose of safe from the attacks of human beings and from the Egyptian prowlings of wild animals, and also out of the reach of the infiltration of the waters of the Nile, or of the inundation itself. If the preservation of a mummy was regarded as a sacred duty to be performed by the relatives of the deceased, who were morally bound to show all honour to it, and to spend their money freely on whatever was necessary for its adornment, it follows of a necessity that a house or tomb meet for the habitation of the ka, and for the soul after it had been decreed triumphant in the judgment hall of Osiris, must also be provided. The size and beauty of a tomb and its furniture depended, as much as the making of the mummy, upon the means at the disposal of the relatives of a deceased person. Every person in Egypt knew perfectly well that to ensure the resurrection of his body, aster the pure soul had returned to inhabit it, it was necessary that every part of it should be preserved in a fitting state, but nevertheless, every person was not able to afford the costly embalming, and the still more costly furniture and tomb and procession which were, no doubt, held by the wealthy to be absolutely necessary for “living a second time.” The burial of the very poor of Egypt must have been much the same in all times and in all dynasties. The body, having been salted only, was laid in the sand to a depth of three or four feet, without covering, without ornament, and even without a coffin ; sometimes even the salting was

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