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with them, supposed that the first days of those that enter upon such governments, declare the intentions of those that accept them ; and so by how much Archelaus spake the more gently and civilly to them, by so much did they more highly commend bim, and made application to him for the grant of what they desired. Some made a clamour that he would ease them of some of their annual payments; but others desired him to release those that were put into prison by Herod, who were many, and had been put there at several times; others of them required that he would take away those taxes which had been severely laid upon what was publicly sold and bought. So Archelaus contradicted them in nothing, since he pretended to do all things so as to get the good will of the multitude to him, as looking upon that good will to be a great step towards his preservation of the government. Hereupon he went and offered sacrifice to God, and then betook himself to feast with his friends.
How the people raised a sedition against Archelaus, and how
he sailed to Rome. 1.
At this time also it was, that some of the Jews got together, out of a desire of innovation. They lamented Matthias, and those that were slain with him by Herod, who had not any respect paid them by a funeral mourning out of the fear men were ip of that man ; they were those who had been condemned for pulling down the golden eagle. The people made a great clamour and lamentation hereupon, and cast out some reproaches against the king also, as if that tended to alleviate the miseries of the deceased. These people assembled together, and desired of Archelaus, that, in way of revenge on their account, he would inflict punishment on those who had been honoured by Herod; and that, in the first and principal place, he would deprive that high-priest whom Herod had made, and would choose one more agreeable to the law, and of greater purity, to officiate as high-priest. This was granted by Archelaus, although he was mightily offended at their importunity, because he proposed to himself to go to Rome immediately, to look after Cæsar's determination about him. However, he sent the general of his forces to use persuasions, and to tell them that the death which was inflicted on their friends, was according to the law; and to represent to them, that their petitions about these things were -carried to a great height of injury to him; that the time was not now proper for such petitions, but required their unanimity until such time as he should be established in the government by the consent of Cæsar, and should then be come back to them; for that he would then consult with them in common concerning the purport of their petitions, but that they ought at present to be quiet, lest they should seem seditious persons.
2. So when the king had suggested these things, and instructed his general in what he was to say, he sent him away to the people ; but they made a clamour, and would not give him leave to speak, and put him in danger of his life, and as many more as were desirous to venture upon saying openly any thing which might reduce them to a sober mind, and prevent their going on in their present courses; because they had more concern to have all their own wills performed, than to yield obedience to their governors ; thinking it to be a thing insufferable, that, while Herod was alive, they should lose those that were the most dear to them, and that when he was dead, they could not get the actors to be punished. So they went on with their designs after a violent manner, and thought all to be lawful and right which tended to please them, and being unskilful in foreseeing what dangers they incurred; and when they had suspicion of such a thing, yet did the present pleasure they took in the punishment of those they deemed their enemies, overweigh all such considerations; and although Archelaus sent many to speak to them, yet they treated them not as messengers sent by him, but as persons that came of their own accord to mitigate their anger, and would not let one of them speak. The sedition also was made by such as were in a great passion ; and it was evident that they were proceeding farther in seditious practices, by the multitude's running so fast upon them.
3. Now upon the approach of that feast of unleavened bread, which the law of their fathers had appointed for the Jews at this time, which feast is called the Passover,* and is a memorial of their deliverance out of Egypt (when they offer sacrifices with great alacrity, and when they are required to slay more sacrifices in number than at any other festival ; and when an innumerable multitude came thither out of the country, nay from beyond its limits also, in order to worship God;) the seditious lamented Judas and Matthias,' those teachers of the laws, and kept together in the temple, and had plenty of food, because these seditious persons were not ashamed to beg it. And as Archelaus was afraid flest some terrible thing should spring up by means of these men's mad
* This passover, when the sedition here mentioned was mored against Archelaus, was not one, but thirteen months after the eclipse of the moon already mentioned.
ness, he sent a regiment of armed men, and with them a captain of a thousand, to suppress the violent efforts of the seditious, before the whole multitude should be infected with the like madness; and gave them this charge, that if they found any much more openly seditious than others, and more busy in tumultuous practices, they should bring them to bim. But those that were seditious on account of those teachers of the law, irritated the people by the noise and clamour they used to encourage the people in their designs; so they made an assault upon the soldiers, and came up to them, and stoned the greatest part of them, although some of them ran away wounded, and their captain among them; and when they had thus done, they returned to the sacrifices which were already in their hands. Now Archelaus thought there was no way to preserve the entire government, but by cutting off those who made this attempt upon it; so he sent out the whole army upon them, and sent the horsemen to prevent those that had their tents without the temple, from assisting those that were within the temple, and to kill 'such as ran away from the footmen, when they thought themselves out of danger, which horsemen slew three thousand men, wbile the rest went to the neighbouring mountains. Then did Archelaus order proclamation to be made to them all, that they should retire to their own homes; so they went away, and left the festival out of fear of somewhat worse which would follow, although they had been so bold, by reason of their want of instruction. So Archelaus went down to the sea with his mother, and took with him Nicolaus and Ptolemy, and many others of his friends, and left Philip his brother as governor of all things belonging both to his own family and to the public. There went out also with him Salome, Herod's sister, who took with her her children, and many of her kindred were with her ; which kindred of hers went, as they pretended, to assist Archelaus in gaining the kingdom, but in reality to oppose him, and chiefly to make loud complaints of what he had done in the temple. But Sabinus, Cæsar's steward for Syrian affairs, as he was making haste into Judea, to preserve Herod's effects, met with Archelaus at Cæsarea; but Varus (president of Syria) came at that time, and restrained him from meddling with them, for he was there as sent for by Archelaus, by the means of Ptolemy. And Sabinus, out of regard to Varus, did neither seize upon any of the castles that were among
the Jews, nor did be seal up the treasures in them, but permitted Archelaus to have them, until Cæsar should declare his resolution about them; so that, upon this his promise, he tarried still at Cæsarea. But after Archelaus was sailed for Rome, and Varus was removed to Antioch, Sabinus went to
Jerusalem, and seized on the king's palace. He also sent for the keepers of the garrisons, and for all those that had the charge of Herod's effects, and declared publicly, that he should require them to give an account of what they had; and he disposed of the castles in the manner he pleased; but those who kept them did not neglect what Archelaus had given them in command, but continued to keep all things in the manner that had been enjoined them; and their pretence was, that they kept them all for Cæsar.
4. At the same time also did Antipas, another of Herod's sons, sail to Rome, in order to gain the government; being buoyed up by Salome with promises, that he should take that government ; and that he was a much honester and fitter man than Archelaus, for that authority ; since Herod had, in his former testament, deemed him the worthiest to be made king, which ought to be esteemed more valid than his latter testament. Antipas also brought with him bis mother, and Ptolemy the brother of Nicolaus, one that had been Herod's most honoured friend, and was now zealous for Antipas; but it was Ireneus the orator, and one who, on account of his reputation for sagacity, was entrusted with the affairs of the kingdom, who most of all encouraged him to attempt to gain the kingdon: by whose means it was, that when some advised him to yield to Archelaus, as to his elder brother, and who had been declared king by their father's last will, he would not submit so to do. And when he was come to Rome, all his relations revolted to him; not out of their good will to him, but out of their hatred to Archelaus ; though indeed they were most of all desirous of gaining their liberty, and to be
put under a Róman governor ; but, if there were too great an opposition made to that, they thought Antipas preferable to Archelaus, and so joined with him, in order to procure the kingdom for him. Sabinus also by letters, accused Archelaus to Cæsar.
5. Now when Archelaus had sent in his papers to Cæsar, wherein he pieaded his right to the kingdom, and his father's testament, with the accounts of Herod's money, and with Ptolemy, who brought Herod's seal, he so expected the event; but when Cæsar had read these papers, and Varus's and Sabinus's letters, with the accounts of the money, and what were the annual incomes of the kingdom, and understood that Antipas had also sent letters to lay claim to the kingdom, he summoned his friends together, to know their opinions, and with them Caius, the son of Agrippa, and of Julia bis daughter, whom he had adopted, and took him, and made him sit first of all, and desired such as pleased to speak their minds about the affairs now before thein. Now
Antipater, Salome's son, a very subtle orator, and a bitter enemy to Archelaus, spake first to this purpose : That it “ was ridiculous in Archelaus to plead now, to have the
kingdom given him, since he had, in reality, taken already " the power over it to himself before Cæsar had granted it “ to him; and appealed to those bold actions of his, in de“stroying so many at the Jewish festival; and, if the men “ had acted unjustly, it was but fit the punishing them should o have been reserved to those that were out of the country, “ but had the power to punish them, and not been executed “ by a man, that if he pretended to be a king, he did an in
jury to Cæsar, by usurping that authority before it was de. “ termined for him by Cæsar; but, if he owned bimself to “ be a private person, his case was much worse, since he “ who was putting in for the kingdom, could by no means
expect to have that power granted him, of which he had “ already deprived Cæsar [by taking it to himself]. He • also touched sharply upon bim, and appealed to his chang“ ing the commanders in the army, and his sitting in tlie “ royal throne before-hand, and his determination of law
all done as if he were no other than a king. He ap. “ pealed also to his concessions to those that petitioned him
on a public account, and indeed doing such things, than “ which he could devise no greater if he had been already " settled in the kingdom by Cæsar. He also ascribed to him “ the releasing of the prisoners that were in the Hippo“ drome, and many other things, that either had been cer“ tainly done by bim, or were believed to be done, and easily “ might be believed to have been done, because they were 66 of such a nature as to be usually done by young men, and « by such as, out of a desire of ruling, seize upon the go16 verument too soon.
He also charged him with his neglect 6 of the funeral mourning for his father, and with having “ merry meetings the very night in which he died; and that " it was thence the multitude took the handle of raising a “ tumult; and if Archelaus could thus requite his dead faé ther, who had bestowed such benefits upon bim, and be
queathed such great things to him, by pretending to shed
tears for bim in the day-time, like an actor on the stage, “ but every night making mirth for baving gotten the govern
ment, he would appear to be the same Archelaus with
regard to Cæsar, if he granted him the kingdom, which " he had been to his father ; since he had then dancing “ and singing, as though an enemy of his were fallen, and
not as though a man were carried to his funeral, that was so nearly related, and had been so great a benefactor to
But he said that the greatest crime of all was this, that