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Over-soul.” As may be suspected from the title, | little swamp, impressed with the firm conviction, this is very transcendental ; and having already as far as firmness can pertain to so volatile a dealt with its “philosophy,” which is but another creature, that nothing but his merciful forbearance variation of the old weary strain, we shall leave prevents his setting moon, and stars, and universe it alone in its glory. It contains, we may ob- in flames, by means of his potent tail and fiery serve, a vast amount of blasphemy, and is alto- beard. But when honest people are found to run gether extremely offensive.

after this inflated marshlight, and incur no little The paper on

“Circles" is more amusing, danger of sinking in the swampy ground on which though this contains much of mischievous audac- it flourishes, being likely at all events to plunge ity also.

What a pity is it that men will write up to the chin in mud and water, and sure not to on subjects of which they do not understand the escape without many a miry strain— this grovery elements !

Here, for instance, we are told tesque extravagance becomes something more than that we can never see Christianity from the laughing matter, and calls for severe reprehension catechism,” as if a man who does not recognize and rebuke. By-the-by, this very Mr. Emerson the existence of a God had any right to teach was employed in America to harangue a large Christians the nature of Christianity; and this body of theological students. dispersing to their announcement is followed up by a very imper- pastoral cares. What a satisfactory idea does this tinent, not to say impious, gloss on wnat Mr. give us of American orthodoxy in essentials ! Emerson calls a brave text of Paul's." We We do not mean to suggest that all religious shall not trouble our readers with it. What the bodies in America were represented at the univerlast facts of philosophy are in this thinker's esti-sity in question—we humbly trust that the Epismation, we may learn from the following extract, copal church was not. But we digress. which only “caps" a long passage, couched in

The paper on

Intellect" contains little that is the self-same strain :-" The poor and the low novel, excepting a very preposterous outburst at have their way of expressing the last facts of phi- its conclusion in favor of the old pagan philoslosophy as well as you. Blessed be nothing,' ophers Hermes, Empedocles, Olympiodorus, Syand • The worse things are the better they are,' nesius, &c. How much, we venture to inquire, are proverbs which express the transcendentalism does Mr. Emerson really know of these men ? of common life.” It is a kind of circular indif- How much has he really read of their composiferentism, inferring that good things and bad all tions ? We suspect that this is an instance in come to one end at last, which is here aimed which the trite “Omne Ignotum pro Magnifico" at by our philosopher. But the part of this may find an apt and needful application. But essay, in which the writer's inordinate, and we Mr. Emerson dwells in a world of shadows, and could almost say delightful, conceit (did it not therefore these pagan unrealities might well call prove so mischievous in its effects) displays itself forth his ardent sympathy. Men of this author's to most advantage, is perhaps the following: “Be- order like everything which they do not under: ware when the great God lets loose a thinker on stand ; mainly, we suppose, because self-admirathis planet! Then all things are at risk! It is tion is their unfailing characteristic, and they as when a conflagration has broken out in a great rarely, if ever, understand themselves. city, and no man knows what is safe, or where it The twelfth and last Essay treats of “Art," and is will end! There is not a piece of science, but its designed to teach us, that the date of poetry, paintflank may be turned to-morrow; there is not any ing, sculpture, and music has expired; nevertheless, literary reputation, not the so-called eternal names we are to take comfort, and cultivate art still, " in of fame, that may not be revised and condemned. eating and drinking,” and further, " in the shop and The very hopes of man, the thoughts of his heart, mill, the assurance-office and the joint-stock compathe religion of nations, the manners and morals of ny”—an appropriate American conclusion, against mankind, are all the mercy of a new generaliza- which it is scarcely worth our while to protest. tion! Generalization is always an influx of the There is something infinitely amusing in the tone divinity into the mind. Hence the thrill that of patronage to art which our

" thinker” assumes. attends it.” This delicious morceau we have Hear him once more! He has just condescended extracted in full; indeed, we had not the heart to to bestow some praises on certain pictures of Rafcurtail it. We are not aware that we have ever faelle's, and now continues :-“Yet, when we met with a passage in which the vis comica is car- have said all our fine things about the arts, we ried to a higher point of daring. The first out- must end with a frank confession, that the arts, as break, after the letting loose of "the thinker," is we know them, are but initial.” Afterwards we delightful ! " All things are at risk.Good learn, “they are abortive births of an imperfect reader, do you not tremble ? The subsequent or vitiated instinct ;' but here the philosopher climax is tremendous :-"hopes of man, .“re-soars too high for our weak senses to follow him. ligion of nations,” “morals of mankind,”—all In sober truth, we have but another instance here at the mercy of this awful “ thinker," who is to of that inordinate vanity which is Mr. Emerson's extirpate them all, if he so pleases, by means most besetting literary sin. Not possessing genius of a mysterious battle-axe, “a generalization !” himself, being unable to create a great picture, Here the image is irresistibly suggested of a or a real poem, or an oratorio, and only gifted Will o' the Wisp, dancing up and down upon his with the unfortunate faculty (however common)

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of writing high-sounding twaddle about each and to few; for which reason we subjoin a short acall of them, he is extremely anxious to convince count of him. the world and himself that this twaddle is quite as Richard Hurd was born on the 13th January, great or greater than the works of art in question, 1720, at Congreve, in the parish of Penkrich, and that an Emerson is equal to a Shakspeare, a Staffordshire. He was the second son of John Raffaelle, or a Beethoven. The puddle from the and Hannah Hurd, who, he has himself told us, tanning-yard, not content with troubling the lake's were plain, honest, and good people--farmers, purity, goes bubbling, and hissing, and steaming but of a turn of mind that might have honored any on, as though it were lord of all, and the lake rank and any condition." These worthy people were only there that it might be able to sail about were solicitous to give their son the best and most in it and defile the azure waters. But let us liberal education, and sent him to the grammar waste no more words on this exhibition of absurd- school at Brerewood. In 1733 he was admitted ity.

of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, but he did not We shall now draw these observations to a close, go to reside there until a year or two afterwards. noted down for the benefit of some, whose eyes, He took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1739, under God's blessing, they may in some degree and that of Master in 1742; in which year he avail to open. Certainly the very dangerous na- was elected a fellow, and ordained deacon in St. ture of this man's speculations is not sufficiently Paul's Cathedral, London ; and in 1744 he was realized, and parents and those in authority are admitted into priest's orders at Cambridge. not duly on the watch against them.

Dr. Hurd's first literary production was,

ReWe have run through twelve of Mr. Emerson's marks on Weston's “ Inquiry into the Rejection Essays, and discovered more of paradox than of of the Christian Miracles by the Heathens,” pubruth, and perhaps more of evil than of paradox. lished in 1746 ; and in 1748, on the conclusion of Had we looked further, we should have found lit- the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, he contributed some tle or nothing better, though there are two or three verses to the University collection for 1749. In happy descriptions of natural scenes in the Essay the same year he took the degree of Bachelor of on Nature ; for Mr. Emerson's mind travels round Divinity, and published his “ Commentary on the a vicious circle, and is almost incessantly occupied Ars Poetica of Horace," in which he endeavored in inculcating self-idolatry. Once more, and in con- to prove that the Roman poet has treated his subclusion, we assure him and his admirers, that the ject with systematic order and the strictest method ; universe is not included in that very petty section an idea which has been strenuously combated by of it which is reflected on the mirror of his or their several eminent writers. In the preface to this individualities. To self-conceit creation seems to Commentary, he took occasion to compliment have originated in its finite perceptions, and to Warburton, in a manner which won him the favor have reached the goal of being when its approval of that learned dogmatist, and procured for him a is obtained ; and nevertheless the world would return in kind in the bishop's edition of “ Pope's have gone on very well without it, and will, no Works,” where Hurd's Commentary is spoken of doubt, go on, when it shall have been gathered to in terms of the highest commendation. This exits fathers. To the mite in the sunshine a ray of change of flattery gave rise to an intimacy between light is the universe ; nevertheless there is a world these persons, which continued unbroken during beyond. And his range of thought must be con- their lives, and is supposed to have exercised contracted indeed, his perceptions infinitesimally nar- siderable influence over the opinions of Hurd, who row, who cannot love and reverence his fellow-men was long considered as the first scholar in what has as ofttimes equal or superior to himself—who been termed the Warburton school. The “Comcannot recognize and adore his God.

mentary” was reprinted in 1757, with the addition

of two dissertations, one on the drama, the other From Bontley's Miscellany. on poetical imitation, and a letter to Mr. Mason

on the marks of imitation. In 1765, a fourth PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE OF KING GEORGE

edition, corrected and enlarged, was published in THE THIRD AND THE ROYAL FAMILY WITH

three volumes octavo, with a third dissertation on BISHOP HURD, FROM 1776 TO 1805.

the idea of universal poetry; and the whole was RICHARD HURD, Bishop of Worcester, was a again reprinted in 1776. This work fully estabvery considerable man in his day. The friend lished the reputation of Hurd as an elegant and and follower of Warburton, he could read this acute, if not always a sound and judicious, critic. passage in a letter of his master, “Of this John- In May, 1750, he was appointed by Sherlock, son, you and I, I believe, think much alike," and Bishop of London, one of the Whitehall preachers. not feel ashamed of the imputation of contemning About this time he entered warmly into a controso illustrious a man as the author of the English versy respecting the jurisdiction of the Vice-ChanDictionary. But the world, “ which knows not cellor of Cambridge, which had been appealed how to spare,” has long ago decided which was against by some contumacious members of that the greater man of the two; and, accordingly, university ; but it is hardly necessary to relate the while every man is familiar with all that befel particulars of the contest. Johnson, the life of Hurd is known comparatively In 1751 he published a Commentary on the

ego

Epistle to Augustus ; and in 1753 a new edition ( tracts which make up this volume were written of both Commentaries, with a dedication to War- and published by the author at different times, as burton. The friendship he had formed with War- opportunity invited, or occasion required. Some burton continued to increase by mutual good sharpness of style may be objected to them, in reoffices; and, in 1755, Hurd eagerly embraced an gard to which he apologizes for himself in the opportunity which offered itself of owning the words of the poet :warmth of his attachment. Dr. Jortin having, in

Me quoque pectoris his Dissertations, spoken of Warburton with less

Tentavit in dulci juventa deference and submission than the exactions of an

Fervor.overbearing and insolent superiority could easily

-Nunc mitibus tolerate, Hurd wrote a bitter satire, entitled “ The

Mutare quæro tristia.” Delicacy of Friendship, a Seventh Dissertation, This is a very miserable apology, and makes addressed to the author of the Sixth ;'' a produc-the original offence the greater. The words of tion in which he was betrayed into too close an the poet might have suggested to him the propri imitation of his master's style; and displayed a ety, while he had the pen in his hand, of casdegree of warmth—also borrowed from Warburton ligating these performances. “ Pleasant, but —far beyond anything that the supposed offence wrong," thought Hurd, in his old age, of his could either call for or justify. rd, according-tracts. The plea has little penitence in it. ly, took pains to suppress the pamphlet; but in In 1762 the sinecure rectory of Folkton was 1788 it was republished in a volume, entitled conferred on him by Lord Chancellor Northing“ Tracts of Warburton and a Warburtonian.” ton ; in 1755 he was chosen preacher of Lincoln's

Hurd continued to reside at Cambridge until Inn; and in August, 1767, he was collated to the 1756, when, on the death of Dr. Arnold, he suc- archdeaconry of Gloucester by Bishop Warburceeded, as senior fellow of Emmanuel College, to ton. In July, 1768, he was admitted doctor of the rectory of Thurcaston, to which he was insti- divinity at Cambridge; the same day he was tuted in 1757, and where, having entered into appointed to open the lecture founded by Warburresidence, he continued to prosecute his studies, ton for the illustration of the prophecies ; and the which were principally confined to subjects of Twelve Discourses which he preached there were elegant literature. The remarks on Hume's published in 1772, under the title of an Introduc

Essay on the Natural History of Religion” ap-tion to the Study of the Prophecies concerning the peared soon afterwards. But Warburton appears Christian Church, and in particular concerning the to have had the chief hand in the composition Church of Papal Rome. of this part, which we find republished by Hurd In 1768, he published the select works of Abrain the quarto edition of that prelate's works, and ham Cowley, with a preface and notes, in 5 vols. enumerated in the list of them. It appears to 8vo., an edition which has been condemned as have occasioned some uneasiness to Hume, who, interfering with the integrity of Cowley's works, in the account of his own life, notices it with a and which certainly is not the most judicious of degree of acrimony quite unusual to that impassive Hurd's undertakings. In 1775 he was, by the philosopher.

recommendation of Lord Mansfield, promoted to In 1759 Hurd published a volume of “ Dia- the Bishopric of Lichfield and Coventry, and conlogues on Sincerity, Retirement, the Golden Age secrated early in that year; and soon after enterof Elizabeth, and the Constitution of the English ing on the episcopal office, he delivered a charge Government;" and this was followed by his “Let- to the clergy of the diocese, as well as a Fast serters on Chivalry and Romance ;" which, with his mon for “the American rebellion,” which was “Dialogue on Foreign Travel,” are republished preached before the House of Lords. in the year 1765, with the author's name, and a In May, 1781, Bishop Hurd received a gracious preface on dialogue writing. In the preceding message from his Majesty George III., conveying year he had published another of those zealous to him an offer of the see of Worcester, with the tracts in vindication of Warburton which has added clerkship of the closet, both of which he accepted. little to his fame as a writer, and procured him Nor did his majesty's kindness stop here. For the reputation of an illiberal and unmannerly on the death of Dr. Cornwallis, in 1783, he was polemic. It was entitled, “A Letter to the Rev. offered the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury, with Dr. Thomas Leland, in which his late dissertation many gracious expressions, and was even pressed on the principles of human eloquence is criticized, to accept it; but he humbly begged leave to and the Bishop of Gloucester's idea of the nature decline it, as a charge not suited to his temper and character of an inspired language, as delivered and talents, and much too heavy for him to sustain in his lordship's doctrine of grace, is vindicated in these times," alluding, we presume, to the disfrom all the objections of the learned author of the tractions arising from the conflict of political parDissertation.” This, with Hurd's other contro- tjes. In 1788, Hurd published a complete edition versial tracts, has been republished in the eighth of the works of Warburton, in 7 vols. 4to. ; but volume of the authorized edition of his works, the life did not appear till 1795, when it came forth where we find prefixed to it, by way of advertise- under the title of a discourse, by way of general ment, the following lines, written by the author preface to the 4to. edition of Bishop Warburton's Rot long before his death. “ The controversial works, containing some account of the life, writ

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ings, and character of the author. This work | York, and shows, in its kindness and good humor, excited considerable attention, and the style is that the child was “ father of the man." equally remarkable for its purity and elegance ;

Kew, August 5th, 1776. but the stream of panegyric is too uniform not to MY DEAR LORD—I hope you are now arrived • subject the author to the suspicion of long-con- safe at Eccleshall, and that you are now quite recov

firined prejudices. Even the admirers of Warbur- ered of your fatigues. With this letier I send you ton would have been content with less laborious the translation of the Speech of Virginius to the efforts to magnify him at the expense of all his Soldiers in the Camp after the death of his Daughcontemporaries. They conceived that age and

ter. I hope you will excuse the writing of the letreflection should have abated, if not wholly extin- I was playing with Mr. Arnold in the garden, and

ter and translation, as I fell down yesterday while guished, the unworthy animosities of times gone sprained and bruised my second finger on my right by. But in this they were disappointed. Hurd hand very much. We hope to finish the first book was a true disciple of the great dogmatist ; and of Xenophon on Wednesday. I hope, as you love hence it was with regret that they observed the hot weather, that your climate has been like ours; worst characteristic of Warburton—his inveterate last Friday, at two o'clock, our thermometer was dislike, his fierce contempt, and his sneering sar

eighty-seven. It is time for walking, so I will not

detain casm-still employed to perpetuate his personal

you any longer. Therefore I am,

Your affectionate friend, antipathies, and employed, too, against such men

FREDERICK. as Secker and Lowth. If these were the feelings

P.S.-Since I wrote this letter, I have seen Mr. of those who venerated Warburton and esteemed Hawkins, who found that I had put out my finger, Hurd, others, who never had much attachment for and has set it again for me.

Good bye. the Bishop of Gloucester or his school, found little To the Right Reverend Father in God, Richard, difficulty in accumulating against his biographer

Lord Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry,

Eccleshall, Staffordshire. charges of gross partiality and illiberal abuses.

The remainder of Hurd's life was spent in the And now follows a letter from the Prince of discharge of his episcopal duties, and in studious Wales, (afterwards George IV.,) by which it apretirement. He died on the 28th of May, 1808, pears that he had not got far into the first book of being then in his eighty-ninth year. As a writer, Livy. His lesson seems to have been a teaser ; his taste, learning, and talents have been univer- for Romulus does not prate away at a fine rate sally acknowledged ; and though, like his master, -if by that expression he meant a long ratecontempluous and intolerant, he was, nevertheless, neither does he argue with the Sabine wolnen, to shrewd, ingenious, and original. In his private whom he gives as sensible advice as possible, un character ne was in all respects amiable ; nor were der the awkward circumstances of the case. the relations in life in any degree embittered by

Kew, August 6th, 1776. the gall and wormwood which so frequently flowed

MY DEAR LORD-I am afraid that the enclosed from his pen; an assertion which the following translation will not prove so delicious a morsel as letters will abundantly prove; for they show that your lordship expected to receive. However, I have he was regarded with the warmest affection by the iried to give it as good a relish as possible ; but the royal family who addressed them to him.

author is very difficult, and I not at all versed in The first letter requires a brief explanation. In translation, as your lordship knows. Euclid goes the Gazette of June 8th, 1776, we find the follow- on very well, for we are in the middle of the third ing :-" St. James's. The king has been pleased

book ; and as to Livy, I have just left Romulus to appoint his Grace George Duke of Montagu to think he has the best of the argument. We are in

prating away for marriage at a fine rate, though I be governor ; Richard, Lord Bishop of Lichfield hopes of having a most glorious day at Windsor on and Coventry to be preceptor ; Lieutenant-Colonel Monday next. I have a new mare, which, without George Hotham, sub-governor, and the Rev. Wil- boasting, I may say is at least as good as your lordliam Arnold, B. D., sub-preceptor to their Royal ship’s. We all long to see you again at Kew, and Highnesses, George Augustus Frederick, Prince

With the truest and sincerest affection, yours, of Wales, and to Prince Frederick, Bishop of

GEORGE P. Osnaburg” (the Duke of York.)

To the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop

of Lichfield and Coventry, Eccleshall, Staffordshire. Queen's House, June 2d, 1776. My Lord, I have persuaded the Duke of Mon- It would seem, from the following, that Arnold, tagu to accept of the office his brother has declined. the sub-preceptor, had made great way in the reHis worth is equal to that of the good man we both gard of the king. this day so much regretted. I hope this will also heal a mind I am certain much hurt at being the

Windsor Castle, August 241h, 1777. cause of much pain to me.

My Lord—I cannot refrain from exercising the I am now going to Kew to notify the change to great comfort the human mind is capable of-the my sons, and desire you will be here at ten this communicating pleasure to those it esteems. Mr. night, when I will introduce you to the Duke. The Arnold has gained the greatest applause from the similarity of the brothers will, 1 trust, make this excellence of his serinon he has just delivered, which change not material even to you.

GEORGE R.

could have been equalled by nothing but the decency To the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.

and modesty of his deportment ; indeed, this able,

as well as valuable, man does the greatest justice to The next letter is from the young Duke of the propriety of your choice, and shows that your

I am,

discernment into the characters of men is as con- of Salisbury, and subsequently was made Archspicuous as your other great and amiable qualities. deacon of Winchester. He owed all his prefer

GEORGE R. To the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.

ments to Bishop Hoadly. In 1775, he preached

the sermon on the consecration of Hurd as Bishop We would now draw attention to a letter from of Lichfield. In 1781, the decay of his sight, Queen Charlotte, which, bearing in mind that she which ended at last in total blindness, prevented is writing in a language foreign to her, displays a his acceptance of the bishopric of Gloucester, to very lively ability.

which the king, without solicitation, had nominated My Lord—It will be difficult to decide whose him, on the death of Warburton. He died in 1795, conduct deserves the most to be criticized, my eldest leaving behind him the character of “a sincere and daughter's in sending you a present of a young exemplary Christian, a sound and accurate scholar, lady, or mine in encouraging her to do so ? Sup: a strenuous and able defender of the Christian repose, then, I plead guilty ? will that satisfy you? 1 ligion, and of the Church of England.” think it will, for you remember well that last Wednesday we agreed that to acknowledge our errors My good Lord—On Monday I wrote to the Archwas a virtue we should strive to obtain ; but in order bishop of Canterbury my inclination to grant Dr. to keep up all the decorum necessary for this young Balguy a dispensation from performing the strict lady to get admitted into an episcopal habitation : residence required by the statutes of the Chapter of my daughter Augusta desires an old philosopher Winchester, provided the archbishop and bishop of would conduct her safely, with hopes that you will the diocese (whom I desired him to consult) saw ni take them both under your protection.

objection in this particular case to such an indul CHARLOTTE.

gence. On Wednesday the archbishop told me ho Queen's House, Friday morning, January 26th, 1781. had followed my directions, and that he and the To the Bishop of Worcester.

bishop agreed in the propriety of the step, and On May 1, 1781, at the Episcopal Palace, at thanked me for having first asked their opinion, Chelsea, in the 85th year of his age, died Dr. John which must prevent this causing any improper preThomas, Lord Bishop of Winchester, clerk of the cedent. I have now directed Lord Shelburne to

have the dispensation prepared for my signature. closet to the king, and prelate of the most noble You may, therefore, now communicate my intenorder of the garter.

He succeeded the celebrated tions to Dr. Balguy. Dr. Hoadly, in the see of Winchester. We read I have also acquainted the new lord steward of that “ the king and queen have for some years past the right of the deputy clerk of the closet to dine honored his lordship with an annual visit to Farn- at the chaplain's table, and his servant to dine with ham Castle."

the servants. You may therefore acquaint the dep

uty clerk of the closet in waiting of things being Windsor, May 21, 1781. now put on the same foot as previous to the dispute My Good Lord, I have this instant received the with Lord Talbot. account of the death of my very worthy and much

George R. esteemed friend the Bishop of Winchester. To an Queen's House, May 10th, 1782. heart like yours it is easy to conceive that the news could not reach me without causing some emotion, though reason convinces me that for him it is a most

Heyne, to whom the king alludes in the followwelcome event. I therefore lose no time in acquaint- ing letter, was professor of poetry and eloquence ing you that I cannot think of any person so proper in the university of Gottingen. Having the literto succeed him as clerk of my closet as yourself ; and, indeed, I trust that any opportunity that brings ary industry common to his learned countrymen, you nearer to my person cannot be unpleasing to you. he wrote several ponderous quartos, all of which Relying on this, I have acquainted the lord chamber-are to be found in the King's Library. lain to notify this appointment to you, but I thought We would particularly request the attention of any mark of my regard would best be conveyed by our readers to the just sentiments expressed by the myself. I trust, therefore, that this letter will reach king on war, and the education of the people. you before any intimation from him. I have also directed Lord North to acquaint you that I propose

Windsor, July 23d, 1782. to translate you to the See of Worcester. With all

My good LORD—It is with infinite satisfaction I the partialiiy natural to the county of Stafford, I should hope you will allow Hartlebury to be a bet- that at last the German books, wrote in Latin, and

received on Sunday your letter ; by which I find ter summer residence than Eccleshall, and I flatter collected by Professor Heyne, by my directions, for inyself that hereafter you will not object to a situation that may not require so long a journey every continue to authorize him to send any others that he

you, are arrived at Hartlebury. I shall certainly year as either of these places. Believe me, at all times,

may think, from their subjects or styles, likely to

meet with approbation. I own the reputation of My good lord, your very sincere friend,

GEORGE R.

the university of Gottingen I have much at heart,

from an idea that, if ever mankind reflect, they must To the Lord Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.

allow that those who encourage religion, virtue, and The Dr. Balguy referred to by the king in the literature, deserve as much solid praise as those who letter we are about to present, was the son of a disturb the world, and commit all the horrors of more eminent divine, who presented him the rec

war to gain the reputation of being heroes. tory of North Stoke, near Grantham, in Lincoln- days, and no change can be expected but by an early

Indeed, my good lord, we live in unprincipled shire. He afterwards obtained from Bishop Hoadly attention to the education of the rising generation. a prebend at Winchester ; became later Archdeacon Where my opinion must be of weight-I mean, in

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CCLXXXVIII.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXIII.

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