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45. Dr. Latham admits the greater difficulty in this instance. He says, (Logic in its Application to Language, $19):
At the first view, few things can be more unlike each other than an assertion and a command ; indeed, it may be admitted that the propositional character of commands is less clear than that of questions. Words like walk, stand, &c., convey neither an affirmation, nor a denial, as a matter of direct assertion. Nevertheless, they are essentially affirmative, and, by attaching to them the word not, can be made negative; walk not, stand not, fear not, eat not, drink not, do not. Again :
Walk =thou be walking.
Eat = thou be eating, &c. And what is thou but a subject, be but a copula, and walking but a predicate ?
46. In the first place, I object to the resolution of walk into thou be walking. But if we let that pass, for the sake of argument, be is not a copula in the logical sense. If we wish to reduce the expression walk to the form of subject, copula, predicate, we must say, 'My command to you is that you should walk,' or 'My command to you is to walk.'
To take a form applicable to indicative sentences, and to force it upon imperative sentences, must inevitably lead to confusion.
The case of Optative sentences is somewhat similar to that of Interrogatives; so that no further remark is necessary upon that part of the subject.
47. The whole system must be revised. Even in dealing with simple indicative sentences, the youthful student is often quite bewildered with logical subjects and grammatical subjects, logical predicates and grammatical predicates, enlargements of the subject, and extensions of the predicate. But when he has to apply the same principles of analysis to interrogative, imperative, or optative sentences, where, to say the least, the application is very dubious, it is not surprising if he despairs of the whole business.
I believe that, in some of our Middle Class Examinations, the terms subject' and 'predicate' are used at random; while very few of the candidates have a clear notion of the principles upon which the system of analysis depends.
Before schoolmasters adopt this method, they would do well to consider, (1) whether the system itself is sound; (2) whether the books which profess to teach it are free from serious In the present work an attempt is made to explain Indicative Sentences, Simple and Compound. And until the method of analysis is more fully developed, I venture to suggest that Interrogative, Imperative, and Optative sentences should be treated on the old-fashioned parsing system.
Certainly, nothing can be worse than the habit of straining terms, and forcing their application in cases for which they were not designed.
48. We have seen that a Simple Sentence contains one subject-nominative, and one predicate-verb. Any sentence containing more than one subject-nominative, or more than one predicate-verb, is called a Compound Sentence.
A Compound Sentence may contain two or more independent sentences, either coupled by conjunctions, or standing side by
1. Hannibal crossed the Alps, and the Romans marched
to meet him. 2. He came, he saw, he conquered. . In the first of these examples, the two independent sentences are joined together by the conjunction and; in the second, three sentences stand side by side. And since, in each example, the sentences are of equal rank, they are called coordinate sentences, from the Latin con-, together,' and ordo, 6a rank.' In the first example we have two co-ordinate sentences in one compound sentence; and in the second, we have three co-ordinate sentences in one compound sentence. Thus:
First Co-ordinate: Hannibal crossed the Alps.
He conquered. 49. But, as language progresses, there is a tendency to pass from the Co-ordinate to the Cor-relative form.
In the older stages of a language, we often find Co-ordinate sentences, where the later stage would exhibit Correlative forms. In the Greek of Homer and Pindar, for instance, we observe independent sentences introduced by demonstrative pronouns or adverbs, where, in later Greek, one of the sentences would be thrown into the relative form, introduced by a relative pronoun or adverb. Even in later authors we meet with occasional examples of similar construction, as, *And it was now late . . . and the Corinthians suddenly began to back water, for, 'when it was now late . . , the Corinthians,' &c. : "Hôn gè hu ove και οι Κορίνθιοι εξαπίνης πρύμναν εκρούοντο.-Τhuc. i. 50. So too, ' And it was now about forenoon, and the station, where he intended to halt, was near at hand :'kal Kon Te hv åuol ayopày anh θουσαν, και πλήσιον ήν ο σταθμός ένθα έμελλε καταλύειν.-Χen. Anah. 1. viii. 1.
In Anglo-Saxon this form is very common : so, Xa* Herodes thæt gehyrde, tha wearð he gedrefed : •then Herod heard that, then became he troubled.' (Matth. ii. 3.) Sometimes the particle is doubled in the first sentence; as, tha da men slepon, tha com his feonda sum, then then men slept, then came one of his foes.'--Matth. xiii. 25.
Observe that, in this form, a demonstrative particle stands at the beginning of each sentence. But when, in course of time, one sentence was made relative, and was introduced by a relative particle, the other, employed as a principal sentence, no longer needed an introductory particle.
We may suppose the process to have been of the following kind :1. Then Herod heard this, then was he troubled. 2. When Herod heard this, then he was troubled. 3. When Herod heard this, he was troubled. Even in modern composition, after several sentences commencing with when or if, the conclusion sometimes receives additional emphasis by the introduction of then, or then indeed.
50. Now, the view commonly taken by grammarians is somewhat to this effect : that in passing from the Co-ordinate to the Correlative form, one of the co-ordinate sentences retains its rank, while the other falls into a subordinate position.
The sentence which retains its rank is usually termed the Principal Sentence; and that which takes an inferior rank is called the Subordinate Sentence, or the Dependent Sentence.
I am inclined to think that the terms Subordinate and Dependent do not exactly represent the state of the case; and in this connexion I prefer the term clause to sentence.
In point of fact, the Correlative clauses are, respectively, relative and demonstrative. For example, in the compound sentence, “When Herod heard this, he was troubled, we have:
When Herod heard this, Relative Clause.
Demonstrative Clause. *% cquivalent to dh, is pronounced like our th in that, thine,' those.' The modern English th does double duty, for th as in thin,' and for dh as in thine.'
However, not to multiply terms, we may accept, in this connexion, the terms suggested by Becker; Principal Clause, and Accessory Clause, thus :
When Herod heard this, · Accessory Clause.
Principal Clause. 51. We shall consider Compound Sentences under three divisions : I. COMPOUND SENTENCES CONTAINING CO-ORDINATE SEN
52.-I. COMPOUND SENTENCES CONTAINING CO-ORDINATE SENTENCES.
The Co-ordinate sentences which form a Compound Sen. tence may, with regard to signification, stand in various relations to one another. The second may add something to the meaning of the first ; or choice may be implied between them; or the one may stand in opposition to the other. Accordingly we may divide them into three classes : (1) Copulative, (2) Alternative, (3) Adversative.
1. Copulative. 53. Here the first sentence makes a statement, while the second or following sentences furnish an addition to the meaning: as,
Sunk are thy bowers in shapeless ruin all,
Goldsmith, Deserted Village.
2. Alternative. 54. Sometimes two or more sentences joined together imply the notion of choice: as,
He must pay the money, or he must go to prison.
He must work hard, or he will not succeed. In the full form, both the co-ordinate sentences have introductory particles; in the affirmative, either . . . or; in the negative, neither
not an alternative force : as,
Merchant of Venice, i. 1.
3. Adversative. 55. Here the co-ordinate sentences are in opposition to one another; either absolutely, in the way of negation, or by way of limitation and contrast.
Men may come, and men may go ;
But I go on for ever. Tennyson.
Goldsmith, Deserted Village. 56.-II. COMPOUND SENTENCES CONTAINING CORRELATIVE
Clause is otherwise termed the Adverbial Sentence, or
the Adverbial Clause. In this division we shall observe some remains of old Coordinate forms; and we shall find some Compound Sentences exhibiting a change more or less complete from the Co-ordinate to the Correlative form.
We have remarked that, as language progresses, there is a tendency to pass from the co-ordinate to the correlative form of sentence. The co-ordinate sentences are resolved into what we call the Principal Clause and the Accessory Clause.
We observed too, that in many cases each co-ordinate sentence originally had an introductory particle (Adverb or Conjunction)
As a general rule the Principal Clause no longer needs this introduction; but the particle, sometimes in a modified form, remains with the Accessory clause.
When the second of two co-ordinate sentences becomes the principal it frequently takes the first place, and the accessory clause is transferred to the second place.
We shall consider the various relations of (1) Time, (2) Place, (3) Manner, (4) Degree, (5) Cause and Effect, (6)