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Apis Bull, in Egyptian Hāp, mummies are

O tolerably common; they were mummified with great honour, and buried in sarcophagi at Şakkârah. The oldest are probably those of the XVIIIth dynasty.

Antelope, in Egyptian na kahes or 33 i fos maheť, mummies are rare ; a good specimen is

Cat, in Egyptian 848 màu, mummies are very

B.M. No. 6783 a.

Greek legends concerning the cat.

common, and exhibit many methods of bandaging with linen of two colours; they were placed in bronze or wooden cases, made in the form of a cat, the eyes of which were inlaid with obsidian, rock-crystal, or coloured paste. Wooden cat-cases often stand on pedestals, and are painted white, green, etc. Mummified kittens were placed in rectangular bronze or wooden cases, which, at times, are surmounted with figures of cats. Diodorus says (I., 83) that when a cat died all the inmates of the house shaved their eyebrows as a sign of mourning, and although the statement by the same writer that the Egyptians slew a Romian who had accidentally killed a cat may be somewhat exaggerated, there is no doubt that the animal sacred to Bast was treated with great respect in Egypt, and that dead bodies of the animals were sent to be buried, after embalmment, to Bubastis. The cat was fed with specially prepared bread soaked in milk, and chopped fish.

sa emsuh, mummies of a large size are not common ; small crocodiles, lizards, and other members of that family were embalmed and placed in rectangular bronze or wooden cases, the tops of which were frequently surmounted by a figure of this reptile in relief.

Mummies of animals, etc.

Crocodile, in Egyptian 08

Ichneumon mummies were placed in bronze cases, made in the shape of this animal.

Shrew-mice mummics are not common; they were placed in rectangular bronze cases, surmounted by a figure of this animal.


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habu, mummies, embalmed, and buried in earthenware jars, stopped with plaster, are very common.

The Hawk, in Egyptian Jha båk, when mummified, was placed either in a rectangular bronze case or in a bronze case in the form of a hawk.

Frogs, in Egyptian A heget, and Toads, when embalmed, were placed in cases made of bronze or steatite.

Scorpion, in Egyptian potente Serq, mummies are very rare ; they were placed in rectangular cases, inscribed with the name of Isis-Serq, which were surmounted by figures of the scorpion, with the head of a woman wearing disk and horns (B.M. No. 11,629). Beetle, in Egyptian

xeper, rarely sābeb

, mummies were deposited in cases of wood (B.M. No. 8654a) or stone (B.M. No. 2880).

Snake mummies are very common, and were either Mummies placed in rectangular bronze or wooden cases, or wrapped

of reptiles, in many bandages and laid in pits. Bronze snake-cases usually have a figure of the snake coiled up in relief upon them, but sometimes the head, which is human and erect, wears the double crown and uræus (B.M. No 6881c); one example having the head of a hawk is also known (B.M. No. 6879). The uræus serpent, in Egyptian

W2 Ārārt, was the most commonly mummified.

Fish were mummified largely, and were either placed singly in cases of bronze or wood, or several were bandaged up in a bundle and laid in a pit prepared for the purpose. Many fish were known to the Egyptians, and the commoner sorts were og ánnu = páypos, os Rhes āba, BOJAN uheb, 299 meni, Renārt


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, IRO ] J- betu; the usual name for fish in general was

999 barei, IKAW ay baka, and


The Jo abļu and the ånt were mythological fishes which accompanied the boat of the Sun.

CIPPI OF HORUS. These curious and interesting objects are made of basalt and other kinds of hard stone, and calcareous stone; they are in the shape of a rounded tablet, and vary in size from 3 in. x 2 in., to 20 in. x 16 in.; the Metternich stele is, however, very much larger. The scenes engraved upon them represent the triumph of light over darkness, the victory of good over evil, and cippi were used as talismans by those who were initiated into the mysteries of magic, to guard them from the attacks of noxious beasts, and from the baneful influence of Set, the god of all evil. To give an idea of these magical objects, a description of an example, in a good state of preservation, now in the British Museum (No. 957a) is here appended. On the front, in relief, is a figure of Horus, naked, standing upon two crocodiles, which are supported by a projecting ledge at the foot of the stele. Hurus has the lock of hair, emblematic of youth, on the right side of his head, and above him, resting on the top of his head, is a head of Bes, also in relief. His arms hang at a little distance from his sides ; in the right

hand he holds two serpents, a scorpion, and a ram or stag, Scenes on and in the left two serpents, a scorpion, and a lion. On the a cippus of

right is a sceptre, upon which stands the hawk of Horus wearing horns, disk and feathers, and on the left is a lotusheaded sceptre with plumes and two menits: (sce p. 265). To the right and to the left of tlie god, outside the sceptres, are eight divisions; those on the right represent:

1. Oryx, with a hawk on his back, in front is inscribed modo, “Horus, lord of Hebennu,” i.e., the metropolis of the sixteenth nome of Upper Egypt.

| A faulty copy is given in Wilkinson, The Ancient Egyptians, Vol. III., pl. XXXIII. 2 The inscription reads 90. Behuţet, great god."

8 3 The inscription reads,



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5. Isis, de

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2. Ibis-headed god, Thoth, o

« lord of Chemennu, lord of divine words," and the god Her-shef

hawk-headed, wearing the triple crown La 3. “Heka, lord of enchantments,” 841 hawkheaded, holding a serpent in each hand ; “Neith, mighty lady, divine mother, lady of Says" GEO

4. Hawk-headed god, mummified, wearing disk and holding a serpent in each hand; the inscription is ga “Chensu, lord of Sam-behuțet.”

A, with the body of a hippopotamus, holding a snake; on her head she wears a disk and horns.

6. Ptaḥ, in the form of a squat child standing on a pedestal with four or five steps; the inscription is to Ptaḥ ser àa, “ Ptaḥ, prince, mighty ..

7. The goddess Serqet, scorpion-headed, holding a serpent with both hands ; the inscription is not «Serqet, lady of life.

8. Goddess, wearing disk and serpent, ea, on her head, Scenes on standing between two serpents; the inscription reads to a cippus of “Nebt hetep."

The eight scenes on the left hand side of Horus represent :

1. Goddess, having a disk and two scorpions on her head, which is in the form of two serpents' heads, standing on a crocodile ; she holds a serpent in her right hand, and a serpent and a scorpion in the left ; on the crocodile's head is

The inscription reads, fete 2. Crocodile, with disk and horns, on a stand ; behind it a serpent Usert, 18 The inscription reads, 715 “great god ......

3. Isis suckling Horus among papyrus plants, under a canopy formed by two serpents, called Nechebet 7 Jo and Uatchet 18, wearing the crown of Upper and Lower

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Egypt respectively; under each serpent is a scorpion. The inscription reads dovo]y, "Isis, lady of Cheb."

4. Crocodile-headed god Sebek ņJa seated. This scene is rendered incomplete by a break in the cippus.

5. Hawk-headed god wearing the crown of Lower Egypt, and holding a serpent in his hands; he is called Hmuide “Horus, son of Osiris, born of Isis."

6. Hawk of Horus , wearing horns and plumes Q, standing on my ; behind him is eśen, and a goddess, wearing disk and horns, and having the body of a scorpion, called “ Isis-Serqet” delle

7. Horus, in the form of a boy, holding A over his left shoulder, seated on a crocodile, under a canopy formed by two serpents; the inscription reads,

o N79778 8. The goddess Uatchet 10, wearing crown of Lower Egypt, on a papyrus sceptre ; behind her Hus and Sau En, each holding a knife.

Above the two crocodiles on which Horus stands are two small scenes in each of which is a crocodile, one being on a stand ; that to the right of Horus has on his head now and that on the left ; the former is called 3 “ Hidden is his name,” and the latter te

“ Horus in Uu.”

The inscription, which covers the front and base of the pedestal and back and sides of the cippus, contains an invocation to the god from whom the person for whom it was made seeks to gain power.

Cippi of Horus belong probably to the period which followed soon after the end of the rule of the XXVIth dynasty over Egypt, and the inscriptions on them are badly executed. They are generally found broken in half, or if not broken, the head of Horus has been hammered to deface the features ; these injuries probably date from ancient times.


Late date of cippi of Horus.

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