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2. Now when Judas, the son of Judas, who was one of Si. mon's under officers, and a person entrusted by him to keep one of the towers, saw this procedure of Simon, he called together ten of those under him, that were most faithful to him (perhaps this was done partly out of pity to those that had so barbarously been put to death, but principally in order to provide for his own safety), and spake thus to them: “ How long Thall we bear these miseries ? or what hopes have we ot deliyerance by thus continuing faithful to such wicked wretches ? Is not the famine already come against us? Are not the Roc mans in a manner gotten within the city ? Is not Simon become unfaithful to his benefactors ? and is there not reason to fear he will very soon bring us to the like punishment, while the security the Romans offer us is sure ? Come on, let us surrender up this wall, and save ourselves and the city. Nor will Simon be very much hurt, if, now he despairs of deliverance, he be brought to justice a little sooner than he thinks on.” Now these ten were prevailed upon by those argu. ments ; so he sent the rest of those that were under him, some one way, and some another, that no discovery might be made of what they had resolved upon. Accordingly he called to the Romans from the tower about the third hour, but they, Tome of them out of pride, despised what he said, and others of them did not believe him to be in earnest, though the greateft number delayed the matter, as believing they should get polieflion of the city in a liule time, without any hazard. But when Titus was just coming thither with his armed men, Sia mon was acquainted with the matter before he came, and prelently took the tower into his own custody, before it was surrendered, and seized upon these men, and put them to death in the sight of the Romans themselves ; and when he had man gled their dead bodies, he threw them down before cbe wall of the city.

3. In the mean time Josephus, as he was going round the ciiy, had his head wounded by a stone that was thrown at him; upon which he fell down as giddy. Upon which fall of his the Jews made a sally, and he had been hurried away into the city, if Cæsar had not fent men to protect him immediately; and, as these men were fighting, Josephus was taken up. though he heard little of what was done. So the feditious sup. pored they had now flain that man whom they were the most desirous of killing, and made thereupon a great noise in way of rejoicing. This accident was told in the city; and the mula titude that remained became very disconsolate at the news, as being persuaded that he was really dead, on whole account alone they could venture to delert to the Romans. But when Jofephus's mother heard in prison that her lon was dead, she Jaid to those that waiched about her, that " The had always been of opinion, since the siege of Jotapata, (that he would be llain), and the thould never enjoy him alive any more." She also made great lamentation privately to the maid servants that were about her, and said, “ 'That this was all the advantage she had of bringing so extraordinary a person as this son into the world, that she should not be able even to bury that son of hers, by whom she expected to have been buried herself." However, this false report did not put his mother to pain, nor afford merriment to the robbers long ; for Josephus foon recovered of his wound, and came out, and cried out aloud, " That it would not be long ere they should be punished for this wound they had given him.” He also made a fresh exhortation to the people to come out upon the security that would be given them. This sight of Jofephus encouraged the people greatly, and brought a great consternation upon the leditious.

4. Hereupon some of the deserters, having no other way leaped down from the wall immediately, while others of them went out of the city with stones, as if they would fight them; but thereupon they fled away to the Romans. But here a worse fate accompanied these, than what they had found within the city; and they met with a quicker dispatch from the too great abundance they had among the Romans, than they could have done from the famine among the Jews ; for when they came first to the Romans, they were puffed up by the famine, and fwelled like men in a dropsy; after which they all on the sud. den overfilled those bodies that were betore empty, and so burst asunder, excepting such only as were skilful enough to restrain their appetites, and by degrees took in their food into bodies unaccustomed thereto. Yet did another plague seize upon those that were thus preserved; for there was found among the Syrian deserters a certain person who was caught gathering pieces of gold out of the excrements of the Jews bellies ; for the deserters used to swallow such pieces of gold, as we told you before, when they came out; and for these did the feditious search them all ; for there was a great quantity of gold in the city, inlomuch that as much was now fold (in the Roman camp] for twelve Attic (drams/, as was sold before for twenty-five. But when this contrivance was discovered in one instance, the fame of it filled their several camps, that the deferters came to them full of gold. So the multitude of the Arabians with the Syrians, cut up thole that came as suppli. cants, and searched iheir bellies. Nor does it feem to me, thas. any milery befel the Jews that was more terrible than this, lince in one night's time about two thousand of these delerters. were thus diffected.

5. When Titus came to the knowledge of this wicked practice, he had like to have surrounded thole that had been guilly of it with his horse, and have shot them dead; and he had done it, had not their number been so very great, and thole that were Jiable to this punishment would have been manitold, more thary those whom they had flain. However, he called together the

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Book V. commanders of the Roman legions, (for some of his own fol. diers had been also guilty herein, as he had been informed). and had great indignation against both sorts of them, " What! have any of my own soldiers done such things as this out of the uncertain hope of gain, without regarding their own wea. pons, which are made of silver and gold ? Moreover, do the Arabians and Syrians now first of all begin to govern them. selves as they please and to indulge their appetites in a foreign war, and then, out of their barbarity in murdering men, and out of their hatred to the Jews, and get it ascribed to the Ro. mans ?" for this infamous praćtice was said to be spread a. mong some of his own soldiers also. Titus then threatened, that he would put such men to death, i! any of them were dil, covered to be so insolent as to do so again; moreover he gave it in charge to the legions, that they should make a search after such as were suspected and should bring them to him. But it appeared that the love of money was too hard for all their dread of punilhment, and a vehernent dehre of gain is natural to men, and no passion is so venturesome as covetousness; otherwise such passions have certain bounds, and are subordinate to fear. But in reality it was God who condenned the whole nation, and turned every course that was taken for their preservation to their destruction. This, therefore, which was forbidden by Cæsar under such a threatening was ventured upon privately against the deserters, and there barbarians would go out still, and meet those that ran away before any saw them, and looking about them to see that no Roman (pied them, they dissect. ed them, and pulled this polluted money out of their bowels; which money was still found in a few of them, while yet a great many were destroyed by the bare hope there was of thus getting by them ; which miserable treatment made many that were deserting to return back again into the city.

6. But as for John, when he could no longer plunder the peo ple, he betook himself to sacrilege, and melted down many of the sacred utensils, which had been given to the temple, as also many of those vessels which were necessary for such as minil. tered about holy things, the caldrons, the dishes, and the tables ; nay, he did not abstain from those pouring vessels that were rent them by Augustus and his wife; for the Roman Emperors did ever both honour and adorn this temple; whereas this man, who was a Jew, seized upon what were the donations of foreigners, and said to those that were with him, that it was proper for them to use divine things, while they were fighting for the die vinity, without fear, and that such whose warfare is for the temple should live of the temple : On which account he emptied the vessels of that facred wine and oil, which the priets kept to be poured on the burnt-offerings, and which lay in the inner court of the temple, and distributed it among the multitude, who in their anointing themselves, and drink. ing, used [cach of them] above an hin of them. And here

I cannot but speak my mind, and what the concern I am un. der dictates to me, and it is this : I suppose, that had the Ro. mans made any longer delay in coming against these villians, that the city would either have been swallowed up by the ground opening upon them, or been overflowed by water, or else been destroyed by such thunder as the country of Sodom * perished by, for it had brought forth a generation of men much more atheiftical than were those that suffered such punishments; tor by their madness it was that all the people came to be destroyed.

7. And, indeed, why do I relate these particular calami. ties? while Manneus, the son of Lazarus, came running to Titus at this very time, and told him, that there had been car. ried out through that one gate, which was intrusted to his care, no fewer than an hundred and fifteen thousand eight hundred and eighty dead bodies, in the interval between the fourteenth day of ihe month Xanthicus, [Nisan), when the Romans pitched their camp by the city, and the first day of the month Panemus, [Tamuzl. This was itlelf a prodigious multitude : And though this man was not himself set as a gov. ernor at that gate, yet was he appointed to pay the public stipend for carrying these bodies out, and so was obliged of necessity to number them, while the rest were buried by their relations ; though all their burial was but this, to bring them away, and cast them out of the city. After this man there ran away to Titus many of the eminent citizens, and told him the entire number of the poor that were dead, and that no fewer than six hundred thousand were thrown out at the gates ; though still the number of the rest could not be disa covered: And they told him farther, that, when they were no longer able to carry out the dead bodies of the poor, they laid their corpses on heaps in very large houses, and shut them up therein ; as also that a medimnus of wheat was sold for a talent, and that when, a while afterward, it was not possible to gather herbs, by reason the city was all walled about, some persons were driven to that terrible distress as to search the common shores and old dunghills of cattle, and to eat the dung which they got there ; and what they of old could not endure so much as to see, they now used for food. When the Romans barely heard all this, they coinmiserated their case; while the feditious, who saw it allo, did not repent, but suffered the same distress to come upon themselves ; for they were blinded by that fate which was already coming upon the city and upon themselves also.

* Josephus, both here and before, B. IV. ch. viii. § 4. eleems the land of sodom, not as part of the Lake Alphaltites, or under its waters, but near it only, as Tacitus also took the fame notion from him, Hift. V. vi. 7. which the great Reland takes to be the very truth, both in his note on this place, and in his Palesina, tom. I. p. 254-258; though I rather fuppofe part of that region of Pentapolis to be now under the waters of the louth part of that sea, but perhaps not the whole country?

Vol. III.

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From the great Extremity to which the Jews were reduced, to

the taking of Jerusalem by Titus.]

CHAP. I. That the Miseries of the Jews fill grew worse ; and how the

Romans made an Ajauli upon the Tower of Antonia. g 1. THUS did the miseries of Jerusalem grow worse and

I worse every day, and the feditious were still more irritated by the calamities they were under, even while the fame ine preyed upon themselves, after it had preyed upon the people. And indeed the multitude of carcasses that lay in heaps one upon another, was an horrible sight, and produced a peltilential stench, which was an hindrance to those that would make fallies out of the city, and fight the enemy : But as thole were to go in battle-array, who had been already uled to ten thousand murders, and must tread upon those dead bo. dies as they marched along, so were not they terrified, nor did they pily men as they marched over them ; nor did they deem this affront offered to the deceased to be any ill omen to them. selves ; but as they had their right hands already polluted with the murders of their own country men, and in that con. di:ion ran out to fight with foreigners, they seem to me to have cast a reproach upon God himlelf, as if he were too flow in punilhing them: For the war was not now gone on with, as if they had any hope of victory; for they gloried after a brutish manner in that despair of deliverance they were already in. And now the Romans, although they were greatly dil tressed in getting together their materials, raised their banks i: one and twenty days after they had cut down all the trees that were in the country that adjoined to the city, and that for nineiy turlongs round about, as I have already related. And truly the very view itself was a melancholy thing ; for those places which were before adorned with trees and pleasant gardens, were now become a desolate country every way, and its trees were all cut down : Nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn fadly at so great a change; for the war had laid all the signs of beauty quite waste ; nor if any one that had known the place before had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again ; but though he were at the cily itself, yet would ho have inquired for it notwithstanding,

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