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2. And now the banks were finished, they afforded a foun. dation for fear both to the Romans and to the Jews ; for the Jews expected that the city would be taken, unless they could burn those banks, as did the Romans expect that, if there were once burnt down, they should never be able to take it ; for there was a mighty scarcity of materials, and the bodies of the soldiers began to fail with such hard labours, as did their souls faint with so many instances of ill success ; nay, the very caJamities themselves that were in the city proved a greater dis. couragement to the Romans than to those within the city ; for they found the fighting men of the Jews to be not all mollified among such their sore afflictions, while they had themfelves perpetually less and less hopes of success, and their banks were forced to yield to the Itratagems of the enemy, their engines to the firmness of their wall, and their closest fights to the boldness of their attack; and, what was their greatest discouragement of all, they found the Jew's courage. ous louls to be superior to the multitude of the miseries they were under by their ledition, their famine, and the war itselt; insomuch that they were ready to imagine, that the violence of their attacks was invincible, and that the alacrity they shewed would not be discouraged by their calamities; for what would not those be able to bear if they thould be fortunate, who turned their very misfortunes to the improvement of their valour ? These considerations inade the Romans to keep a stronger guard about their banks than they formerly had done.

3. But now John and his party took care for securing themselves afterward, even in this case this wall should be thrown down, and tell to their work before the battering rams were brought against them. Yet did they nut compais what they endeavoured to do, but as they were gone out with their torches, they cane back under great dilcouragement be. fore they came near to the banks.: And the realons were there; that, in the first place, their conduct did not seein to be unanimous, but they went out in diftinct parties, and at distinct intervals, and after a llow manner, and timoroully, and, to say all in a word, without a Jewilh courage ; for they were now detective in what is peculiar to our nation, that is, in boldnels, in violence of aflauit, and in running upon the enemy all to. gether, and in perlevering in what they go about, though they do not at first fucceed in it; but they now went out in a more Janguid manner than usual, and at the same time found the Romans set in array, and more courageous than ordinary, and that they guarded their banks both with their bodies and iheir entire armour, and this to such a degree on all sides, that they left no room for the fire to get among them, and that every one of their souls were in such good courage, that they would fooner die than desert their ranks ; ior besides their notion that all their hopes were cut off, in cale thele their works here once burnt, the soldiers were greatly ashamed that subtilty should quite be too hard for courage, madness for armour, multitude for skill, and Jews for Romans. The Romans had now also another advantage, in that their engines for sieges cooperated with them in throwing darts and stones as tar as the Jews, when they were coming out of the city ; whereby the man that fell became an impediment to him that was next him, as did the danger of going farther make them lels zealous in their attempts; and for thole that had run under the darts, some of them were terrified by the good order and closenels of the enemies ranks before they came to a close fight, and others were pricked with their spears, and turned back again : At length they reproached one another for their cowardice, and retired without doing any thing. This attack was made upon the first day of the monih Panemus, [Tamuz]. So, when the Jews were retreated, the Romans brought their engines, although they had all the while stones thrown at them from the tower of Antonia, and were assaulted by fire and sword, and .by all sorts of darts which neceflity afforded the Jews to make ule of; for although these had great dependence on their own wall, and a contempt of the Roman engines, yet did they en. deavour to hinder the Romans from bringing them. Now thele Romans struggled hard, on the contrary, to bring them, as deeming that this zeal of the Jews was in order to avoid any impreflion to be made on the tower of Antonia, because its wall was but weak, and its foundations ruiten. However, that tower did not yield to the blows given it Irom the engines; yet did the Romans bear the impressions made by the enemies darts which were perpetually call at them, and did not give way to any of those dangers that caine upon them from above, and so they brought their engines to bear. But then, as they were beneath the other, and were sadly wounded by the stones thrown down upon them, some of them threw their shields over their bodies, and parily with their hands, and partly with their bodies, and partly with crows, they undermined its foundations, and with great pains they removed lour of its stones. Then night came upon both lides, and put an end to this struggle for the present : However, that night the wall was to shaken by the battering rams in that place where John had used his ftratagem before, and had undermined their banks, that the ground then gave way, and the wall fell down suddenly.

4. When this accident had unexpectedly happened, the minds of both parties were variously affected: For though one would expect ihat the Jews would be discouraged, because this fall of their wall was unexpected by them, and they had made no provision in that case, yet did they pull up their courage, because the tower of Antonia itself was still flanding; as was the unexpected joy of the Romans at this fall of the wall foon quenched by the right they had of another wall, which John and his party had built within it. However, the actack

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of this second wall appeared to be easier than that of the for. mer, because it seemed a thing of greater facility to get up to it through the parts of the former wall chat were now thrown down. This new wall appeared also to be much weaker than the tower of Antonia, and accordingly the Romans imagined that it had been erected so much on the sudden that they should soon overthrow it : Yet did not any body venture now to go up to this wall; for that such as first ventured so to do trust certainly be killed.

5. And now Titus, upon consideration that the alacrity of Soldiers in war is chiefly excited by hopes and by good words. and that exhortations and promises do frequently make men to forget the hazards they run, nay, sometimes to despise death itself, got together the most courageous part of his ar. my, and tried what he could do wich his men by these methods. “O fellow-soldiers," said he, "to make an exhortation to men to do what hath no peril in it, is on that very account inglorious to such to whom that exhortation is made ; and indeed so it is, in him that makes the exhortation, an ar. gument of his own cowardice also. I therefore think, that such exhortations ought then only to be made use o!, when affairs are in a dangerous condition, and yet are worthy of being attempted by every one themselves : Accordingly, I am fully of the same opinion with you, that it is a difficult task to go up this wall; but that it is proper for those that desire repu. tation for their valour to struggie with difficulties in such cas. es, will then appear, when I have particularly shewed, that it is a brave thing to die with glory, and that the courage here necessary shall not go unrewarded in those that first begin the attempt. And let my first argument to move you to it be tak. en from what probably some would think reasonable to dilfuade you, I mean the constancy and patience of thele Jews, even under their ill successes ; for it is unbecoming you, who are Romans and my soldiers, who have in peace been taught how to make wars, and who have also been used to conquer in thore wars, to be inferior to Jews either in aliion of the hand, or in courage of the soul, and this especially when you are at the conclusion of your việtory, and are affilted by God himself ; for as to our misfortunes, they have been owing to the madness of the Jews, while their sufferings have been owing to your valour, and to the affıstance God hath afforded you ; for as to the seditinos they have been in, and the famine they are under, and the siege they now endure, and the fall of their walls without our engines, what can they all be but demonstrations of God's anger against them, and of his aslistance afford. ed us! It will not therefore be proper for you either to Thew yourselves inferior to those to whom you are really fuperior, or to betray that divine allistance which is afforded you. And indeed, how can it be esteemed otherwise than a bale and un. worthy thing, that while the Jews, who need not be much ashamed if they be delerted, because they have long learned to be slaves to others, do yet despise death, that they may be so no longer ; and do make fallies into the very midst of us frequenta jy, not in hopes of conquering us, but merely for a demonstra. tion of their courage ; we, who have gotten pofleffion of almost all the world that belongs to either land or fea, to whom it will be a great shame if we do not conquer them, do not once undertake any attempt against our enemies wherein there is much danger, but fit still idle, with such brave arms as we have, and only wait till the famine and fortune do our business themselves, and this when we have it in our power, with some small hazard, to gain all that we desire. For if we go up to this tower of Anionia, we gain the city ; for if there should be any more occasion for fighting against those within the city, which I do not suppose there will, since we shall then be upon the top * of the hill, and be upon our enemies belore they can have taken breath, these advantages promise us no less than a certain and sudden vi&tory. As for myself, I shall at present wave any commendations of those who die in wart, and omit to speak of the immortaliiy of those men who are slain in the anidst of their martial bravery : Yet cannot I forbear to imprecate upon those who are of a contrary disposition, that they inay die in time of peace, by some distemper or other, fince their souls are condenined to the grave, together with their bo. dies. For what man of virtue is there who does not know, that those fouls which are severed from their fleshly bodies in battles by the sword, are received by the ether, that pureft of elements, and joined to that company which are placed among the stars ; that they become good demons, and propitious he. roes, and thew themselves as such, to their posterity after. wards ? While upon those fouls that wear away in and with their distempered bodies comes a subterranean night, to dis. solve them to nothing, and a deep oblivion to take away all the remembrance of them, and this notwithstanding they be clean from all 1pots and defilements of this world; so that, in this case, the soul at the same time comes to the utmost bounds of its lile, and of its body, and ot its memorial also. But {ince fate hath determined that death is to come of necellity upon all men, a sword is a better instrument for that purpole

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* Reland notes liere, very pertinentiy, that the tower of Antonia food higher than the fioor of the temple or court adjoining to it; and that accordingly they defcended thence into the temple, as Josephus citewhere (peaks allo. See Book VI. chap. ii. lect. 5.

† In this speech of Titus we may clearly see the notions which the Romans then had o: death, and of the happy fialcotthole who died bravely in war, and the contrary eftate of those who died igliably in their beds by ficknels. Reland here aslo produces two parallel pasages, the one out of Ammianus Marcellinus, concerning The Alani. lib. 31. That - Lley judged that man happy who laid down his lile in battle.” The other of Valerius Maxinus, lib. xi. c. 6. who tays, That, s tbe Cimbri and Celtiteri exulted lor joy in the army, as being to go out of the world gloriously and happily."

than any diseafe whatsoever. Why is it not then a very mean thing for us not to yield up that to the public benefit, which we muft yield up to fate ? And this discourse have I made upon the supposition that thofe who at first attempt to go upon this wall must needs be killed in the attempt, though still men of true courage have a chance to escape, even in the most hazardous undertakings. For, in the first place, that part of the former wall that is thrown down is easily to be ascended, and for the new built wall, it is easily destroyed. Do you, therefore, many of you, pull up your courage, and set about this work, and do you mutually encourage and affist one another; and this your bravery will soon break the hearts of your enemies; and perhaps such a glorious undertaking as yours is may be accomplished without bloodshed. For although it is justly to be supposed, that the Jews will try to hinder you at your first beginning to go up to thein, yet when you have once concealed yourselves from them, and driver them away by force, they will not be able to fullain your et. forts against them any longer, though but a few of you prevent them, and get over the wall. As for that person who first mounts the wall, I should blush for shame if I did not make him to be envied of others, by those rewards I would bestow upon him. It such an one escape with his life, he shall have the command of others that are now but his equals ; although it be true also, that the greatest * rewards will accrue to such as die in the attempt.”

6. Upon this speech of Titus, the rest of the mulitude were affrighted at so great a danger. But there was one, whose name was Sabinus, a soldier that served among the cohorts, and a Syrian by birth, who appeared to be of very great fortitude, both in the a&tions he had done, and the courage of his soul he had shewed ; alihough any body would have thought, before he came to his work, that he was of such a weak conftitution of body, that he was not fit to be a soldier : For his colour was black, his flesh was lean, and thin, and lay close together ; but there was a certain heroic soul that dwelt in this small body, which body was indeed much too narrow for that peculiar courage which was in him. Accordingly he was the first that rose up, when he thus spake : “I readily surrender up myself to thee, O Cæsar ; I first ascend the wall, and I heartily wish that my fortune may follow my courage, and my resolution. And if some ill fortune grudge me the succels, of my undertaking, take notice that my ill success will not be unexpected, but that I choose death voluntarily for thy lake.” When he had said this, and had spread out his shield over his head, with his left hand, and had, with his right hand, drawn his sword, he marched up to the wall, jult about the sixth hour of the day. There followed him eleven others, and no more,

* See note, p. 366.

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