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is bringing on this fire to purge that city and temple by means of the Romans, and is going to pluck up this city, which is full of your pollutions."

2. As Josephus fpake these words, with groans, and tears in his eyes, his voice was intercepted by sobs. However, the Romans could not but pity the affliction he was under, and wonder at his conduct." But !or John, and those that were with him, they were but the more exasperate againft the Ro. mans on this account, and were desirous to get Josephus also into their power ; Yet did that discourse influence a great many of the better iort ; and truly some of them were so a. fraid of the guards set by the feditious, that they tarried where they were, but still were satisfied that both they and the city were doomed to deftruction. Some also there were, who, watching a proper opportunity, when they might quietly get way, fled to the Romans, of whom were the high-priests Joseph and Jesus, and of the lons of high-priests three, whose father was Ilhmael, who was beheaded in Cyrene, and four sons of Matthias, as also one son of the other Matthias, who ran a way * after his father's death, and whose father was plain by Simon, the son of Gioras, with three of his sons, as I have already related ; many allo of the other nobility went over to the Romans, together with the high-priests. Now Cæfar not only received these men very kindly in other respects, but, knowing they would not willingly live after the customs of other nations, he sent them to Gophna, and desired them to remain there for the present, and told them, that when he was gotten clear of this war, he would restore each of them to iheir possessions again : So they cheerfully retired to that small city which was allotted them, without fear of any danger. But as they did not appear, the feditious gave out again, that these deserters were slain by the Romans, which was done in order to deter the rest from running away, by tear of the like treatment. This trick of theirs succeeded now for a while, as did the like trick before ; for the rest were hereby deterred from deserting, by fear of the like treatment.

3. However when Ţitus had recalled those men from Goph, na, he gave orders that they should go round the wall, together with Jolephus and shew themselves to the people ; upon which a great many fled to the Romans. Thele allogot in argeat number together, and stood before the Romans, and besought the leditious, with groans, and tears in their eyes, in the first place to receive the Romans entirely into the city, and lave that their own place of residence again; but that, it they would

* Josephus had hefore told us, Book V. chap. xii. sect. 1. Vol. III, that this fourth son of Matthias ran away to the Romans before his father's and brethren's flaughter, and not after it, as here. The former account is, in all probability, the trueit ; for had pot that fourth son escaped before the others were caught and put to death, he had been caught and put to death with them. This last account therefore Idoks like an inslange of a small inadvertepce of Josephus in the place bufore us,

not agree to fuch a proposal, they would at least depart out of the temple, and save the holy house for their own use ; for that the Romans would not venture to set the sanctuary on fire, but under the most pressing necessity. Yet did the feditious fill more and more contradict them; and while they caft loud and bitter reproaches upon these delerters, they also set their engines for throwing of darts, and javelins, and stones, upon the sacred gates of the temple, at due distances from one another, insomuch, that all the space round about, within the temple, might be compared to a burying-ground, so great was the number of the dead bodies therein; as might the holy house illelt be compared to a citadel. Accordingly these men rushed upon thele holy places in their armour, that were otherwile unapproachable and that while their hands were yet warm with the blood of their own people, which they had shed: Nay, they proceeded to such great transgressions, that the very same indignation which Jews would naturally have against Romans, had they been guilty of such abuses against them, the Romans had now againit Jews, for their impiety in regard to their own religious customs. Nay, indeed, there were none of the Roman soldiers, who did not look with a sacred horror . upon the holy house, and adored it, and wished that the rob. bers would repent before their miseries becaine incurable.

4. Now Titus was deeply affected with this state of things, and reproached John and his party, and said to them, " Have not you, vile wretches that you are, by our permission put up this partition-wall* betore your sanctuary? Have not you been allowed to put up the pillars thereto belonging, at due diftances, and on it to engrave in Greek, and in your own Jetters this prohibition, That no foreigner should go beyond that wall ? Have not we given you leave to kill such as go be. yond it, though he were a Roman? And what do you do ñow, you pernicious villains ? Why do you trample upon dead bodies in this temple ? and why do you pollute this holy house with the blood of both foreigners and Jews themselves? I appeal to the gods of my own country, and to every god that ever had any regard to this place; (for I do not suppose it to be now regarded by any of them); I also appeal to my own army, and to those Jews that are now with me, and even to you yourselves, that I do not force you to defile this your sanctuary ; and if you will but change the place whereon you will fight, no Roman shall either come near your fan&uary, or offer any affront to it; nay, I will endeavour to preserve you your holy houle, whether you will or no t.''

5. As Jolephus explained these things from the mouth of * Of this partition-wall separating Jews and Gentiles, with its pillars and in. fcription, lee the description of the temples, chap. XV

+ That these seditious Jews were the direct occasions of their own destruction, and of the conflagration of their city and temple, and that Titus carnestly and conPantly labopred po tare both, is høre and every where molt evident in Jolephas.

Cæfar, both the robbers and the tyrant thought that these exe hortations proceeded from Titus' fear, and not from his good. will to them, and grew insolent upon it. But when Titus faw that these men were neither to be moved by commiseration to wards themselves, nor had any concern upon them to have the holy house spared, he proceeded unwillingly to go on with the war again against them. He could not indeed bring all his army against them, the place was lo narrow; but chooling thirty soldiers of the most valiant out of every hundred, and committing a thousand to each tribune, and making Cerealis the commander in chief, he gave orders that they hould attack the guards of the temple about the ninth hour of that night. But as he was now in his armour, and preparing to go down with them, his friends would not let him go by reason of the greatness of the danger, and what the commanders suggested to them; for they said, that "he would do more by fit. ting above in the tower of Antonia as a dispenser of rewards fo those soldiers that signalized themselves in the fight, than by coming down and hazarding his own person in the fore. front of them; for that they would all fight ftourly, while Cæsar looked upon them." With this advice Cæsar complied, and said, that “the only reason he had for such compli. ance with the soldiers was this, that he might be able to judge of their courageous actions and that no valiant soldier might lie concealed, and miss of his reward, and no cowardly lol. dier might go unpunished; but that he might himself be an eye- witness, and able to give evidence of all that was done, who was to be the disposer of punishments and rewards to them.” So he sent the soldiers about their work at the hour forementioned, while he went out himself to an higher place in the tower of Antonia, whence he might see what was done, and there waited with impatience to see the event.

6. However, the soldiers that were sent did not find the guards of the temple asleep, as they hoped to have done, but were obliged to fight with them immediately hand to hand, as they rushed with violence upon them with a great shout, Now, as soon as the rest within the temple heard that shout of those that were upon the watch, they ran out in troops upon them. Then did the Romans receive the onlet of those that came first upon them ; but thole that followed them tell upon their own troops, and many of them treated their own soldiers as if they had been enemies ; for the great confused noise that was made on both Gdes bindered them from diftinguishing one another's voices, as did the darkness of the night hinder them from the like distinction by the sight; besides that blind. ness which arose otherwise also from the passion and the fear they were in at the same time: For which reason it was all one to the soldiers who it was they ftruck at. However, this ignofance did less harm to the Romans than to the Jews,because they were joined together under their fields, and made their fallies more regularly than the others did, and each of them remembered their watch-word; while the Jews were perpetually dispersed abroad, and made their attacks and retreats at random, and so did frequently feem to one another to be enemies; for every one of them received those of their own men that came back in the dark as Romans, and made an assault upon them ; so that more of them were wounded by their own men than by the en. emy, till, upon the coming of the day, the nature of the fight was discerned by the eye afterward. Then did they standin battle array in distinct bodies, and cast their darts regularly. and regularly defended themselves. Nor did either side vielà. or grow weary. The Romans contended with each other who should fight the most ftrenuously, both fingle men and entire regiments, as being under the eye of Titus ; and every one concluded, that this day would begin his promotion, if he fought bravely. What were the great encouragements of the Jews to act vigorously were, their tear for themselves and for the temple, and the presence of their tyrant, who exhort, ed some, and beat and threatened others, to act courageoully. Now, it fo happened. that this fight was for the most part a ftationary one, wherein the soldiers went on and came back in a short time and suddenly ; for there was no long space of ground for either of their flights or pursuits. But still there was a tumultuous noise among the Romans from the tower of Antonia, who loudly cried out upon all occasions to their own men, to press on courageously, when they were too hard for the

Jews, and to ftay, when they were retiring backward : So that here was a kind of theatre of war ; for what was done in this fight could not be concealed either from Titus or from those that were about him. At length it appeared that this fight, which began at the ninth tour of the night, was not over till past the fitth hour of the day, and that, in the same place where the bat, tle began, neither party could say they had made the other to retire; but both the armies left the victorv almost in uncertainty between them ; wherein those that signalized themselves on the Roman side were a great many, but on the Jewish side, and of those that were with Simon, Judas the son of Merto, and Si. mon the son of Jofas ; of the Idumeans, James and Simon, the latter of whom was the son of Cathlas, and James was the son of Sotas ; of thole that were with John, Gyptheus and Alexas, and of the Zelotes, Simon the son of Jairus.

-7. In the mean time, the rest of the Roman army had, in seven days time overthrown (fome] foundations of the tower ot Antonia, and had made a ready and broad way to the temple. Then did the legions come near to the first court*, and began to raise their banks. The one bank was over against the northwest corner of the inner temple t; another was at that northern edifice which was between the two gates : Ofthe other two, one was at the weftern cloister of the outer court * of the temple ;

• Court of the Gentiles. + Court of Israel,

the other against its northern cloister. However, these works were thus far advanced by the Romans, not without great pains and difficulty, and particularly by being obliged to bring their materials from the distance of an hundred furlongs. They had farther difficulties also upon them ; sometimes by their over-great security shey were in that they should overcome the Jewish Inares laid for them, and by that boldness of the Jews which their despair of elcaping had inspired them withal; for some of their horsemen, when they went out to gather wood or hay, let their horses feed, without having their bridles on during the time of foraging ; upon which horses the Jews sallied out in whole bodies, and seized them. And when this was continually done, and Cæsar believed, what the truth was, that the horses were stolen more by the negligence of his own men than by the valour of the Jews, he determined to use greater severity to oblige the rest to take care of their horses : So he commanded that one of those soldiers who lost their horses should be capitally punished; whereby he so terrified the reft, that they preserved their horses for the time to come ; for they did not any longer let them go from them to feed by themselves, but as if they had grown to them. they went always along with them when they wanted necessaries. Thus did the Romans still continue to make war against the temple, and to raise their banks against it.

8. Now, after one day had been interposed since the Ro. mans ascended the breach, many of the seditious were so pressed by the famine upon the present failure of their ravages, that they got together, and made an attack on those Roman guards that were upon the Mount of Olives, and this about the eleventh hour of the day, as supposing first, that they would not expect such an onset, and in the next place, that they were then taking care of their bodies, and that therefore they should easily beat them. But the Romans were apprized of their coming to attack them beforehand, and running together from the neighbouring camps on the sudden, prevented them from getting over their fortification, or forcing the wall that was built about them. Upon this came on a Tharp fight, and here many great actions were performed on both sides ; while the Romans shewed both their courage and their skill in war, as did the Jews come on them with immoderate violence, and intolerable passion. The one part were urged on by shame, and the other by neceflity ; for it seemed a very shameful thing to the Romans to let the Jews go, now they were taken in a kind of net ; while the Jews had but one hope of saving themselves, and that was in case they could by violence break through the Roman wall; and one whose name was Pedanius, belonging to a party of horsemen, when the Jews were already beaten and forced down into the valley to. gether, spurred his horse on their flank with great vehemence, and caught up a certain young man belonging to the enemy

VOL. III.:

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