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swered: “Artabanus, of all the opinions you have given, you are deceived most in this, in fearing lest the Ionians should desert us ; of whom we have the strongest proofs, and of whom you are a witness, as well as all the rest who accompanied Darius in his expedition against the Scythians, that the whole Persian army was in their power to destroy or to save, yet they evinced justice and fidelity, and committed nothing ungrateful. Besides this, since they have left their children, and wives, and possessions in our territories, we must not expect that they will form any new design. Do not therefore fear this, but be of good courage, and preserve my house and my government ; for to you alone, of all men, I intrust my sceptre.”

53. Having spoken thus, and despatched Artabanus to Susa, Xerxes again summoned the most distinguished of the Persians, and when they were assembled he addressed them as follows: “O Persians, I have called you together to desire this of you, that you would acquit yourselves like brave men, and not disgrace the former exploits of the Persians, which are great and memorable. But let each and all of us together show our zeal; for this which we are endeavouring to accomplish is a good common to all. On this account, then, I call on you to apply yourselves earnestly to the war; for, as I am informed, we are marching against brave men; and if we conquer them, no other army in the world will dare to oppose us. Now, then, let us cross over, having first offered up prayers to the gods who protect the Persian territory.” 54. That day they made preparations for the passage over ; and on the following they waited for the sun, as they wished to see it rising, in the mean time burning all sorts of perfumes on the bridges, and strewing the road with myrtle branches. When the sun rose, Xerxes, pouring a libation into the sea out of a golden cup, offered up a prayer to the sun, that no such accident might befal him as would prevent him from subduing Europe, until he had reached its utmost limits. After having prayed, he threw the cup into the Hellespont, and a golden bowl, and a Persian sword, which they call acinace. But I cannot determine with certainty, whether he dropped these things into the sea as an offering to the sun, or whether he repented of having scourged the Hellespont, and presented these gifts to the sea as a compensation. 55. When these ceremonies were finished, the infantry and all the cavalry crossed over by that bridge

which was towards the Pontus; and the beasts of burden and attendants by that towards the Ægean. First of all the ten thousand Persians led the van, all wearing crowns; and after them the promiscuous host of all nations. These crossed on that day. On the following, first the horsemen, and those who carried their lances downwards, these also wore crowns : next came the sacred horses and the sacred chariot ; afterwards Xerxes himself, and the spearmen, and the thousand horsemen ; after them the rest of the army closed the march; and at the same time the ships got under weigh to the opposite shore. I have also heard that Xerxes crossed over last of all. 56. Xerxes, when he had crossed over into Europe, saw the army crossing over under the lash : his army crossed over in seven days and seven nights without halting at all. On this occasion it is related, that when Xerxes had crossed over the Hellespont, a certain Hellespontine said: “O Jupiter, why, assuming the form of a Persian, and taking the name of Xerxes, do you wish to subvert Greece, bringing all mankind with you ? since without them it was in your power to do this."

57. When all had crossed over, and were proceeding on their march, a great prodigy appeared to them, which Xerxes took no account of, although it was easy to be interpreted. A mare foaled a hare : this, then, might easily have been interpreted thus, that Xerxes was about to lead an army into Greece with exceeding pomp and magnificence, but would return to the same place running for his life.

Another prodigy had also happened, while he was at Sardis; a mule brought forth a colt, with double parts, both those of a male and those of a female ; those of the male were uppermost. 58. But taking no account of either of these, he proceeded forward ; and with him the land forces. But the fleet, sailing out of the Hellespont, stood along by the land, taking a contrary course to that of the army. For it sailed towards the west, steering for cape Sarpedon, where, on its arrival, it was ordered to wait : but the army on the continent marched towards the east and the rising sun, through the Chersonese, having on the right hand the sepulchre of Helle, daughter of Athamas, and on the left the city of Cardia, and going through the middle of a city, the name of which happened to be Agora ; and from thence, bending round a bay called Melas, and hav

ing come to the river Melas, whose stream did not suffice for the army, but failed, -having crossed this river, from which the bay derives its name, they marched westward, passing by Ænos, an Æolian city, and the lake Stentoris, until they reached Doriscus. 59. Doriscus is a shore and extensive plain of Thrace. Through it flows a large river, the Hebrus. On it a royal fort had been built, the same that is now called Doriscus, and a Persian garrison had been established in it by Darius, from the time that he marched against the Scythians. This place therefore appeared to Xerxes to be convenient for reviewing and numbering his army; this he accordingly did. All the ships therefore having arrived at Doriscus, the captains, at the command of Xerxes, brought them to the shore adjoining Doriscus. On this coast stood Sala, a Samothracian city, and Zona ; and at its extremity Serrhium, a celebrated promontory: this region formerly belonged to the Ciconians. Having steered to this shore, they hauled up the ships and repaired them; and in the mean time Xerxes numbered his army at Doriscus. 60. How great a number of men each contributed, I am unable to say with certainty; for it is not mentioned by any one; but the amount of the whole landforces was found to be seventeen hundred thousand. They were computed in this manner : having drawn together ten thousand men in one place, and having crowded them as close together as it was possible, they traced a circle on the outside ; and having traced it, and removed the ten thousand, they threw up a stone fence on the circle, reaching to the height of a man's navel. Having done this, they made others enter within the enclosed space, until they had in this manner computed all ; and having numbered them, they drew out according to nations.

61. Those who served in this expedition were the following. The Persians, equipped as follows: on their heads they wore loose coverings, called tiaras ; on the body various-coloured sleeved breastplates, with iron scales like those of fish; and on their legs, loose trowsers ; and instead of shields, bucklers made of osiers; and under them their quivers were hung. They had short spears, long bows, and arrows 'made of cane ; and besides, daggers suspended from the girdle on the right thigh. They had for their general, Otanes, father of Amestris, wife of Xerxes. They were formerly called Cephenes by the Grecians, but by themselves and neighbours, Artæans : but

when Perseus, son of Danae and Jupiter, came to Cepheus, son of Belus, and married his daughter Andromeda, he had a son to whom he gave the name of Perses; and him he left in the country, for Cepheus had no male offspring ; from him there. fore they derived their appellation. 62. The Medes marched equipped in the same manner as the Persians ; for the above is a Medic and not a Persian costume. The Medes had for their general, Tigranes, of the family of the Achæmenidæ : they were formerly called Arians by all nations ; but when Medea of Colchis came from Athens to these Arians, they also changed their names: the Medes themselves give this account of their nation. The Cissians, who served in the army, were in other respects accoutred like the Persians, except that, instead of turbans, they wore mitres. Anaphes, son of Otanes, commanded the Cissians. The Hyrcanians were also armed like the Persians, and had for their general, Megapanus, who was afterwards governor of Babylon. 63. The Assyrians who served in the army had helmets of brass, twisted in a barbarous fashion, not easy to be described ; and they had shields and spears, and daggers similar to those of the Egyptians; and besides, wooden clubs knotted with iron, and linen cuirasses. By the Greeks they were called Syrians, but by the barbarians, Assyrians. Among them were the Chaldeans; and Otaspes son of Artachæus commanded them. 64. The Bactrians joined the army, having turbans on their heads, very much like those of the Medes, and bows made of cane peculiar to their country, and short spears. The Sacæ, who are Scythians, had on their heads caps, which came to a point and stood erect: they also wore loose trowsers, and carried bows peculiar to their country, and daggers, and also battle-axes, called sagares. These, though they are Amyrgian Scythians, they called Sacæ, for the Persians call all the Scythians Sacæ. Hystaspes, son of Darius and Atossa, daughter of Cyrus, commanded the Bactrians and Sacæ. 65. The Indians, clad with garments made of cotton, had bows of cane, and arrows of cane tipped with iron. Thus the Indians were equipped ; and they were marshalled under the command of Phanazathres, son of Artabates. 66. The Arians were furnished with Medic bows; and in other respects were accoutred like the Bactrians. Sisamnes, son of Hydarnes, commanded the Arians. The Par. thians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, Gandarians, and Dadicæ, joined

the army, having the same accoutrements as the Bactrians. The following leaders commanded them. Artabazus, son of Pharnaces, commanded the Parthians and Chorasmians ; Azanes, son of Artæus, the Sogdians ; and Artyphius, son of Artabanus, the Gandarians and Dadicæ. 67. The Caspians, clothed in goat-skin mantles, and carrying bows made of cane peculiar to their country, and scimetars, joined the expedition. These were thus equipped, having for their general, Ariomardus, brother of Artyphius. The Sarangæ were conspicuous by having dyed garments ; they also wore buskins reaching up to the knee, and had bows and Medic javelins. Pherendates, son of Megabazus, commanded the Sarangæ. The Pactyes also wore goat-skin mantles, and had bows peculiar to the country and daggers. The Pactyes had for their general, Artyntes, son of Ithamatres. 68. The Utians, Mycians, and Paricanians were equipped like the Pactyes. The following leaders commanded them. Arsamenes, son of Darius, led the Utians and Mycians ; and Siromitres, son of Eobazus, the Paricanians. 69. The Arabians wore cloaks fastened by a girdle ; and carried on their right sides long bows which bent backwards. The Ethiopians were clothed in panthers' and lions' skins, and carried long bows, not less than four cubits in length, made from branches of the palm-tree; and on them they placed short arrows made of cane ; instead of iron, tipped with a stone, which was made sharp, and of that sort on which they engrave seals. Besides they had javelins, and at the tip was an antelope's horn, made sharp, like a lance ; they had also knotted clubs. When they were going to battle, they smeared one half of their body with chalk, and the other half with red ochre. The Arabians and Ethiopians who dwell above Egypt, were commanded by Arsames, son of Darius and Artystone, daughter of Cyrus, whom Darius loved more than all his wives, and whose image he had made of beaten gold. 70. The Ethiopians from the sun-rise (for two kinds served in the expedition) were marshalled with the Indians, and did not at all differ from the others in appearance, but only in their language, and their hair. For the eastern Ethiopians are straight-haired; but those of Libya have hair more curly than that of any other people. These Ethiopians from Asia were accoutred almost the same as the Indians ; but they wore on their heads skins of horses' heads, as masks, stripped off

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