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ing come to the river Melas, whose stream did not suffice for the army, but failed,—having crossed this river, from which the bay derives its name, they marched westward, passing by AEnos, an AEolian city, and the lake Stentoris, until they reached Doriscus. 59. Doriscus is a shore and extensive plain of Thrace. Through it flows a large river, the Hebrus. On it a royal fort had been built, the same that is now called Doriscus, and a Persian garrison had been established in it by Darius, from the time that he marched against the Scythians. This place therefore appeared to Xerxes to be convenient for reviewing and numbering his army; this he accordingly did. All the ships therefore having arrived at Doriscus, the captains, at the command of Xerxes, brought them to the shore adjoining Doriscus. On this coast stood Sala, a Samothracian city, and Zona; and at its extremity Serrhium, a celebrated promontory: this region formerly belonged to the Ciconians. Having steered to this shore, they hauled up the ships and repaired them; and in the mean time Xerxes numbered his army at Doriscus. 60. How great a number of men each contributed, I am unable to say with certainty; for it is not mentioned by any one; but the amount of the whole landforces was found to be seventeen hundred thousand. They were computed in this manner: having drawn together ten thousand men in one place, and having crowded them as close together as it was possible, they traced a circle on the outside; and having traced it, and removed the ten thousand, they threw up a stone fence on the circle, reaching to the height of a man's navel. Having done this, they made others enter within the enclosed space, until they had in this manner computed all; and having numbered them, they drew out according to nations.
61. Those who served in this expedition were the following. The Persians, equipped as follows: on their heads they wore loose coverings, called tiaras; on the body various-coloured sleeved breastplates, with iron scales like those of fish; and on their legs, loose trowsers; and instead of shields, bucklers made of osiers; and under them their quivers were hung. They had short spears, long bows, and arrows made of cane ; and besides, daggers suspended from the girdle on the right thigh. They had for their general, Otanes, father of Amestris, wife of Xerxes. They were formerly called Cephenes by the Grecians, but by themselves and neighbours, Artacans: but when Perseus, son of Danae and Jupiter, came to Cepheus, son of Belus, and married his daughter Andromeda, he had a son to whom he gave the name of Perses; and him he left in the country, for Cepheus had no male offspring; from him therefore they derived their appellation. 62. The Medes marched equipped in the same manner as the Persians; for the above is a Medic and not a Persian costume. The Medes had for their general, Tigranes, of the family of the Achaemenidae: they were formerly called Arians by all nations; but when Medea of Colchis came from Athens to these Arians, they also changed their names: the Medes themselves give this account of their nation. The Cissians, who served in the army, were in other respects accoutred like the Persians, except that, instead of turbans, they wore mitres. Anaphes, son of Otanes, commanded the Cissians. The Hyrcanians were also armed like the Persians, and had for their general, Megapanus, who was afterwards governor of Babylon. 63. The Assyrians who served in the army had helmets of brass, twisted in a barbarous fashion, not easy to be described; and they had shields and spears, and daggers similar to those of the Egyptians; and besides, wooden clubs knotted with iron, and linen cuirasses. By the Greeks they were called Syrians, but by the barbarians, Assyrians. Among them were the Chaldeans; and Otaspes son of Artachaeus commanded them, 64. The Bactrians joined the army, having turbans on their heads, very much like those of the Medes, and bows made of cane peculiar to their country, and short spears. The Sacae, who are Scythians, had on their heads caps, which came to a point and stood erect: they also wore loose trowsers, and carried bows peculiar to their country, and daggers, and also battle-axes, called sagares. These, though they are Amyrgian Scythians, they called Sacae, for the Persians call all the Scythians Sacae. Hystaspes, son of Darius and Atossa, daughter of Cyrus, commanded the Bactrians and Sacae. 65. The Indians, clad with garments made of cotton, had bows of cane, and arrows of cane tipped with iron. Thus the Indians were equipped; and they were marshalled under the command of Phanazathres, son of Artabates. 66. The Arians were furnished with Medic bows; and in other respects were accoutred like the Bactrians. Sisamnes, son of Hydarnes, commanded the Arians. The Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, Gandarians, and Dadica, joined
the army, having the same accoutrements as the Bactrians. The following leaders commanded them. Artabazus, son of Pharnaces, commanded the Parthians and Chorasmians; Azanes, son of Artaeus, the Sogdians ; and Artyphius, son of Artabanus, the Gandarians and Dadicae. 67. The Caspians, clothed in goat-skin mantles, and carrying bows made of cane peculiar to their country, and scimetars, joined the expedition. These were thus equipped, having for their general, Ariomardus, brother of Artyphius. The Sarangae were conspicuous by having dyed garments; they also wore buskins reaching up to the knee, and had bows and Medic javelins. Pherendates, son of Megabazus, commanded the Sarangae. The Pactyes also wore goat-skin mantles, and had bows peculiar to the country and daggers. The Pactyes had for their general, Artyntes, son of Ithamatres. 68. The Utians, Mycians, and Paricanians were equipped like the Pactyes. The following leaders commanded them. Arsamenes, son of Darius, led the Utians and Mycians; and Siromitres, son of CEobazus, the Paricanians. 69. The Arabians wore cloaks fastened by a girdle; and carried on their right sides long bows which bent backwards. The Ethiopians were clothed in panthers' and lions’ skins, and carried long bows, not less than four cubits in length, made from branches of the palm-tree; and on them they placed short arrows made of cane; instead of iron, tipped with a stone, which was made sharp, and of that sort on which they engrave seals. Besides they had javelins, and at the tip was an antelope's horn, made sharp, like a lance; they had also knotted clubs. When they were going to battle, they smeared one half of their body with chalk, and the other half with red ochre. The Arabians and Ethiopians who dwell above Egypt, were commanded by Arsames, son of Darius and Artystone, daughter of Cyrus, whom Darius loved more than all his wives, and whose image he had made of beaten gold. 70. The Ethiopians from the sun-rise (for two kinds served in the expedition) were marshalled with the Indians, and did not at all differ from the others in appearance, but only in their language, and their hair. For the eastern Ethiopians are straight-haired; but those of Libya have hair more curly than that of any other people. These Ethiopians from Asia were accoutred almost the same as the Indians; but they wore
on their heads skins of horses' heads, as masks, stripped off with the ears and mane ; and the mane served instead of a crest, and the horses' ears were fixed erect; and as defensive armour they used the skins of cranes instead of shields. 71. The Libyans marched, clad in leathern garments, and made use of javelins hardened by fire. They had for their general, Massages, son of Oarizus. 72. The Paphlagonians joined the expedition, wearing on their heads plaited helmets, and carried small shields, and not large spears; and besides, javelins and daggers: and on their feet they wore boots, peculiar to their country, reaching up to the middle of the leg. The Ligyes and the Matienians, the Mariandynians and Syrians, marched in the same dress as the Paphlagonians. These Syrians are called by the Persians, Cappadocians. Now Dotus, son of Megasidrus, commanded the Paphlagonians and Matienians; and Gobryas, son of Darius and Artystone, the Mariandynians, Ligyes, and Syrians. 73. The Phrygians had very nearly the same dress as that of Paphlagonia, varying it a little. The Phrygians, as the Macedonians say, were called Briges, as long as they were Europeans, and dwelt with the Macedonians; but having passed over into Asia, they changed their name with their country, into that of Phrygians. The Armenians, being colonists of the Phrygians, were equipped like the Phrygians. Artochmes, who had married a daughter of Darius, commanded both these. 74. The Lydians had arms very like the Grecian. The Lydians were formerly called Meionians, but took their appellation from Lydus the son of Atys, having changed their name. The Mysians wore on their heads a helmet peculiar to their country, and small shields; and they used javelins hardened by fire. They are colonists of the Lydians, and from the mountain Olympus are called Olympieni. Artaphernes, son of Artaphernes who invaded Marathon with Datis, commanded the Lydians and Mysians. 75. The Thracians joined the expedition, having fox-skins on their heads, and tunics around their body, and over them they were clothed with various-coloured cloaks, and on their feet and legs they had buskins of fawn-skin, and besides they had javelins, light bucklers, and small daggers. These people having crossed over into Asia, were called Bithynians; but formerly, as they themselves say, were called Strymonians, as they dwelt on the river Strymon: they say that they were removed from their original settlements by the Teucrians and Mysians. Bassaces, son of Artabanus, commanded the Thracians of Asia. 76. The * * * * * * * had small shields made of raw hides, and each had two javelins used for hunting wolves, and on their heads brazen helmets; and in addition to the helmets they wore the ears and horns of an ox in brass. And over these were crests; and as to their legs, they were enwrapped in pieces of purple cloth. Among these people there is an oracle of Mars. 77. The Cabalian Meionians, who are also called Lasonians, had the same dress as the Cilicians; which I shall describe when I come to speak of the army of the Cilicians. The Milyae had short lances, and their garments were fastened by clasps. Some of them had Lycian bows, and on their heads helmets made of tanned skins. Badres, son of Hystanes, commanded all these. 78. The Moschians had on their heads wooden helmets, and small bucklers, and spears; but there were large points on the spears. The Tibarenians, Macrones, and Mosynoeci joined the expedition equipped as the Moschians. The following generals marshalled these: the Moschians and Tibarenians, Ariomardus, son of Darius and Parmys, daughter of Smerdis, son of Cyrus; the Macrones and Mosynoeci, Artayctes, son of Cherasmis, who was intrusted with the government of Sestos on the Hellespont. 79. The Mares wore helmets on their heads, painted after the manner of their country; and small shields made of skin, and javelins. The Colchians had about their heads wooden helmets, and small shields of raw hides, and short lances; and besides they had swords. Pherendates, son of Teaspes, commanded the Mares and Colchians. The Alarodi and the Saspires marched armed like the Colchians; Masistius, son of Siromitres, commanded them. 80. The insular nations that came from the Erythraean Sea, and from the islands in which the king makes those dwell who are called “ the banished,” had clothing and arms very similar to the Medic. Mardontes, son of Bagaeus, who, when commanding the army at Mycale, two years after this, died in battle, commanded these islanders. 81. These were the nations that marched on the continent, and composed the infantry. They, then, who have been mentioned commanded this army, and these were they who set in