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those who are called Gen. x. 18. are by the LXX. rendered Agadio, and in the Vulgate, Aradii. This Island was not far from the shore, and nearly opposite to Hamath.
Ibid.--They are melted into a sea of solicitude--] This is a literal translation of the text, and appears to me preferable in sense to any of the interpretations which I have hitherto met with.
24.---Distress hath laid hold on her, And pangs---] It seems clear both from the grammar and metre, that the words nnx and Danı have been transposed in the text, as it stands at present. Compare Ch.
25.---How have they not left her] This passage, which has occasioned much perplexity, may, I think, be rendered sufficiently clear by only supposing to be written for 12 an abbreviated mode of writing which often occurs.. Both the Syr. and Vulg. render the verb in the third person plural; and four MSS. have supposed a suppression of the 1, but have supplied it in the wrong place, one reading 21, and three 2. The subject of 21 would be the trembling, the distress, and the pangs, which are said in the preceding verse to have seized on Damascus, and as it follows here had left her in such a condition, as to be no longer what she used to be, a city of praise, a city of my joy," or one which I can behold with satisfaction and delight.
See Note on
26.---her broad places] Her open areas or squares. Ch. v. 1.
27. Ben-hadad] This seems to have been a common name for the kings of Syria as Pharaoh was for those of Egypt.
28. CONCERNING Kedar, and conCERNING THE KINGDOMS OF HASOR] Kedar is well known to have been one of the sons of Ishmael, Gen. xxv. 13. who settled in Arabia. But of Hazor I no where find a satisfactory account given by the Commentators. There is indeed a city called Hazor, mentioned Josh. xi. 10. and in other parts of ScripBut this was in the land of Canaan; whereas the kingdoms of Hazor here prophesied of were evidently in Arabia, in the neighbourhood at least of Kedar. But among the sons of Joktan, who were prior to the Ishmaelites in Arabia, and whose descendants are therefore looked on as the only genuine Arabs, we find one, whose name was Hazor Maveth, Gen. x. 26--30. And as by Kedar all the descendants of Ishmael are probably here designed; so all the other branches of the family of Joktan may likewise be included under the general name of Hazor. And this leads me to observe it as the most probable reason, why the Arabians" that live in the desart" are called" a mingled people," or promiscuous multitude, Ch. xxv. 24. that they were thus made up of people of different descents; some of them being sprung from Joktan, others from Ishmael, to whom must be added the sons of Abraham by Keturah, who are also said to have been settled in Kedem, or the east-country, Gen. xxv. 6. and perhaps other families besides. All these were divided into petty sovereignties under chiefs, called Emirs, and
others called Shekhs, which explains what is to be understood by "the kingdoms of Hazor."
Ibid.---Kedem---] See Note on Ch. xxv. 24
29. Their tents, and their flocks---] The substance of most of these Arabians, who were Scenites, consisted in their tents, furniture, and cattle, with which they moved about from place to place, according as they could find pasture.
Ibid.---And let them bring upon them---]
---Literally, "let them call for," or command "their calamity" to come upon them;" that is, occasion it. See 2 Kings viii. 1. Ps. cv. 16.
30.---Retire deep for to dwell---] See Note on ver. 8.
Ibid.---hath devised a device against you] For by, which is certainly wrong, eighty MSS. perhaps eighty nine, and eight Editions, read ; also forty nine MSS. and four Editions have it marked in the margin for a Keri. The LXX, Chald. and Vulg. render, "against you;" but the Syr. uniformly in both places of this verse," against them."
31.They dwell apart by themselves] That is, their habitations are isolated; so I think w 772 must here signify. They do not live in cities, towns, or villages, where the houses are contiguous but each family has its mansion apart from the rest, with land about it sufficient for the subsistence of their cattle. In this dispersed state they were of course less provided with the means of defending themselves from the incursions of an enemy.
32.of those that inhabit the insulated coast] The peninsula of Arabia, See Notes on Ch. ix. 26. xxv. 23.
34.-CONCERNING ELAM] ELAM we find to have been an independent and even powerful kingdom in the days of Abram. Gen. xiv. 1. But I am not of opinion with those writers who hold that by Elam in Scripture Persia is always meant. There is no doubt but that, when the monarchy of Persia was established under Cyrus, Elam was blended into, and formed a part of it. But before that time Elam and Persia were two distinct kingdoms: of which this may be admitted for proof, that the kingdom of Persia, if Xenophon may be credited as an historian, was never subdued under the dominion of Nebuchadnezzar, but preserved its liberty in alliance with the Medes. Elam on the contrary is not only here prophesied of, as destined to become a part of the Babylonian conquests, but is actually spoken of Dan. viii. 2. as a province of the Babylonish empire, over which Daniel seems to have presided, having Shushan for the seat of his government. We may therefore conclude Elam to have been, as the name itself would lead us to suppose, the country called by heathen writers Elymais, which Pliny in conformity with Daniel, describes as separated from Susiana, by the river Eulæus, or Ulay; Nat. Hist. Lib. vi. Cap. 31. Strabo also gives it the same situation, and in two places mentions the wars it had caried on with the Susians and Babylonians. Lib. xi. p. 524. lib. xvi. p. 744. Shushan or Susa, was, properly speaking, the capital of Susiana; but
it is likely, that when the Babylonians in conjunction with the Susians conquered Elam, they might have annexed it to the government of Susiana, and so the provinces united might have gone indifferently by the name of either Elam, or Susiana. If so, Abradates, whom Xenophon styles king of the Susians, and who in the course of the war between the Babylonians and Medes revolted from the former, and joined the latter with his forces (Xenophon. Cyropæd. Lib. vi.) had Elam likewise, as well as Susiana, for his kingdom or government, conferred upon him by Nebuchadnezzar, who is said to have had an affection for him; and his revolt from the son of his benefactor will help us to account for the forces of Elam being joined with Media in besieging Babylon, as foretold by Isaiah, Ch. xxi. 2. whilst the province or country itself may have still remained in the hands of the king of Babylon, who may have entrusted Daniel with the administration of it; till on the final subversion of the Babylonish monarchy it was restored again to its former possessors, who had fought under the banners of the Medes and Persians as is intimated ver. 39.
35.-the bow of Elam, the principal part of their strength] Isaiah speaks of the Elamites in this manner, Ch. xxii. 6. "And Elam bare the quiver." Strabo also says that the mountainous part of Elymais bred chiefly archers; σρατιωτας τρέφει, τοξότας τες πλείσας. Lib. xvi. P. 744. And Livy speaks of Elymai sagittarii; Lib. xxxvii. Cap. 40. Other heathen writers do the same.
36.-four winds-] By these we are to understand enemies directing their force against them from every quarter of the heavens,
Ibid.-Whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come] Two obvious mistakes are found here in the Text. The first is N2 in the singular number to agree with a plural subject. This however might be accounted for by the subject's being taken distributively; see Buxtorf. Thes. Gram. Lib. ii. Cap. 10. But eight MSS. read , two have a letter erased at the end of N2; and in the Notes of the celebrated Mantuan Edition, No. 300. it is found 3-The other mistake is for r, which is corrected by the Masora, and is found right in the text of fourteen, perhaps nineteen, MSS. and three Editions.
37.--- Until I have consumed them] In Van der Hooght's Edition we read ɔ; but thirty four MSS. and fourteen Editions read 7, as it is also found among the various readings collected at the end of Van der Hooght's Edition.
38.-I will set my throne in Elam] Nebuchadnezzar acting under the commission and authority of God, the establishment of his power was in effect the setting up of the throne or dominion of his princi pal.
39.---I will turn again the captivity of Elam] For w twenty, perhaps twenty one, MSS. and three Editions, together with the Masora, read wx. And for naw the Masora reads naw, with the concurrence of thirty one, perhaps thirty two MSS. and five Editions. See Note on Ch. xxix. 14.
THIS Chapter and the next contain a prophecy concerning the fall of Babylon, intermixed and contrasted with predictions concerning the redemption of Israel and Judah, who were not, like their oppressors, to be finally extirpated, but to survive them, and upon their repentance and conversion to be pardoned and restored. The prophecy was delivered and sent to Babylon in the fourth year of Zedekiah's reign, as appears from Ch. li. 59.
1.—AND CONCERNING THE LAND OF CHALDEA] Eleven MSS. and three of the oldest Editions read), and the Syr. Chald. and Vulg. all express the copulative. In the Complutensian Edition of the LXX. we also find, και επι γην Χαλδαίων εν χειρι Ιερεμις τε προφητε, although in the
other Editions of the LXX. all these words are omitted. The same words, exclusive of zes are in MS. Pachom.
4. But at that time---] I have detached the words
from the beginning of this verse, as thinking, that joined with nya they formed a very unmeaning tautology; that the word in the preceding verse seemed to begin a new hemistich, and to require something to complete both the sense and metre; that this was done by the addition of 2; and moreover, that by rendering the particle in nya, BUT, it well expressed the contrariety of the following passage to that which went before. See again, ver. 19, 20.-The preposition prefixed to time frequently signifies after; nor does it always limit the context to an immediate succession, as is evident from the use of Nin ova in Isaiah, and other prophetic writers. See in particular, Isa. iv. 2. xix. 18, 19. 23, 24. &c. &c. So that we might render ny, after that time. But at, or in, that time, will in the present instance amount to just the same, and denote, during the time of Babylon's desolation; which, being designed to be perpetual, will comprehend as well the time of the general restoration of Israel and Judah in the latter days, as that of their more immediate and partial return from Babylon. Which of these is here particularly intended, I do not pretend to decide; the terms made use of may in some degree coincide with both; and those who admit the double sense of prophecy may be inclined to understand both; whilst those who are of a different opi nion are at liberty to choose which upon the comparison appears most satisfactory.
Ibid. They shall go, weeping as they go along] Compare Ch.
5.-They shall come-] One MS. reads 182, and so the Chald. and Vulg. seem to have done. The LXX. render xas nžova., by which
.ובאן they seem to have read
Ibid.---in an everlasting covenant---] We find the Jews after their return from Babylon, in Nehemiah's time, entering into a covenant to walk in God's law, and to obey him. Neh. ix. 38. x. 1, &c. But by
the "everlasting covenant," I am more inclined to understand that of
6.-have my people been] The Masora with seventeen, perhaps eighteen, MSS. and three Editions, read instead of . Either reading is allowable.
Ibid.---Their shepherds have caused them to stray on the mountains]
Ibid.---Turning aside from mountain to hill] For a the Masora reads, in which sixteen MSS. and two Editions concur. Six MSS. read □aw. But I see no objection to D'aw, which has occurred twice before, Ch. iii. 14, 22. If we read according to the Masoretic emendation, 21 must be rendered, "They (that is, their shepherds) have caused them to turn aside, &c." But if we follow the received reading, the people themselves are said to have turned aside and gone from mountain to hill, varying the object or place of their idolatrous worship, and forgetting the sanctuary of JEHOVAH their God, where alone they ought to have set up their rest. See what follows in the latter part of the next verse.
7. The legitimate fold and recourse of their fathers] The LXX. have omitted at the end of this verse; and I think, rightly, as the repetition tends only to incumber the verse, and perplex the sense, which without it is extremely clear and complete. The allegory of sheep is still kept up. mp signifies the place, whither they were accustomed to look up, and have recourse in all cases of danger or difficulty.
8. go ye forth] For
the Masora rightly reads NY, which is also the reading of twenty two MSS. and two Editions. Compare Ch. li. 6, 45. Isa. xlviii. 20.
Ibid. be ye like he-goats---] That is, set the example for others to follow.
9.---And will array them---] 5 is construed both by our Translators, and in the ancient versions, as the third person plural of the preter tense, with a sense as if it were in the Conjug. Hithpahel. But it seems rather to be the participle present in Kal with the affix, whose antecedent is p, and to be coupled by the conjunction prefixed with
מעלה and מעיר,the two preceding participles
Ibid.---Shall not return empty] That is without doing execution. See the same expression 2 Sam. i. 22. The verb in the singular joined to , a plural subject, distributes the subject, so as to denote that not one of their arrows should miss of their aim."
11.ye shall have rejoiced---triumphed--be grown fat---neighed---]
,תשמחו the Masora reads ,ותצהלי and,,תפושי,תעלזי תשמחי For ,which is more suitable to the context ,ותצהלו and,תפושו תעלו.
and confirmed by all the ancient versions. Also eleven MSS. and four