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supposition that the arts and scien- tions becomes probable, unless there ces must have one single origin; is a historical probability that at one that one favored nation was the de- time they lived together. Striking pository of these blessings; that like agreement in such a thing as lanihe torches in the games they pass- guage, where much is arbitrary, or ed from one people to another, and rather depends on special and slight were enkindled but at one spot. causes, is a better reason for putting Now this in its widest extent is a two nations in the same group than very false supposition. It is oppo- a very considerable similarity in sed to history, which assigns one their civil and religious institutions. invention to one country and one to The remarkable coincidences which another, and ascribes civilization, Humboldt traces out between the where it has existed, to combined names of the signs in the zodiacs causes, partly internal and partly of eastern Asia and the appellations external. It is opposed to what we of some of the Mexican months, is know of our common nature and stronger proof that the race of origin. If all men are of one blood, American Indians came from that all ought to retain some fragments quarter than would be afforded by of those arts which the race proba- parallels in many things where nably possessed before a catastrophe tions are less capricious, such as of which so many of their tradi- the mode of building and the ceretions make mention. And if all monies of worship. have one nature, inventive power If there is justice in these reand genius ought not to be abso- marks, we should with caution attrilutely confined to one place, but be bute the proficiency of all the naspread in very different proportions tions of this continent to one source perhaps—but still be spread where to the Toltecs, for instance, to ever barbarism had not entirely em- whom Mexican tradition goes back bruted the human mind. Civiliza- as the source of the institutions in tion is a thing of parts, and is drawn that country. That the American from many sources. In one quar. Indians, though unquestionably of ter the Arabic numerals arose, in the same race, have for many ages another the art of navigation, in formed distinct communities, is proanother still, metallurgy; and thus ved by the great diversities in their no quarter of the world can boast dialects. Some of these tribes lived itself against another and say, “I on and near the soil of Mexico have had no need of thee.” Nor is when the Toltecs came there. Now the existence of the same arts, or it is remarkable that some of these institutions, or forms of religion, in tribes, if the existing remains are two nations, certain proof that the any proof, far excelled the Mexican one derived them from the other. group of Indians in sculpture and Necessities common to those who in architecture. We may admit, live under the same sky, or who then, the probability that these arts are at a similar stage in civiliza- were native among them, or at least tion, and views of the operations not derived from the Mexicans. On of nature, arising from the common the other hand, the great proficienproperties of the human mind, may cy of this latter nation in celestial often have caused resemblances in observations and in computing time, nations that have grown up apart, together with the fact that some and with no influence on each oth of the names of the months in the er's life. It is only when resem. Maya tongue being not significant blances are close, and particularly are probably foreign,—these cir. in things which are arbitrary, that cumstances show that the Mayas a special connection between na- borrowed their calendar, and that Vol. I.
it may have come from Mexico. Mr. Stephens gives us numerous There was a number of tribes in sketches of the present condition Central America and just north of of the Indians. The picture is by it, who made far greater advances no means a pleasing one, although in civilization than most of their it reveals mild traits of character brethren. Whether their dominion and a capacity for improvement. was once more extensive than we They live in general on the planta. know it now to have been, and tions of Spanish proprietors, and whether the more northern ruins occupy their patches of ground on should be ascribed to some of them, condition of performing a certain we do not presume to say. To amount of work for the landlord. this group of tribes the Mexican The treatment of them differs not tribes, after their mythical emigra- essentially from that of serfs. In tion, belonged ; and, as neighbors some few cases they are independ. are wont to do, borrowed from them ent landowners. At Zayi Mr. Steand gave to them in return.
phens found a village where the Into the proofs of the common Indians form a peculiar society: origin of the Indian race in both the lands are owned in common; Americas, we do not mean to enter; their cookery is done by wholesale still less do we propose to trace out at one hut; and they are expected to their affinities with the nations of the marry within the village. We re. rest of the world. In regard to this commend to Mr. Greeley and others latter point we must refer our read. who are visited with new illuminaers to Bradford's American Antiqui- tions about socialism to make a pil. ties, a work in which nearly all the grimage to this fraternity. Tbe facts known and results reached be. Indians of Yucatan are now free fore 1840 are assembled, and in and independent, but their freedom which it is maintained that the red race bodes litile good. An age of dishas had a very wide diffusion over quiet seems to lie before them. It Etruria, Egypt, Madagascar, ancient is apprehended in the country itself, Scythia, eastern Asia, and through that they may imitate the Indians of the islands of Polynesia. In re- Central America, and form a native gard to the former point we will party opposed to the Spaniards. only say here, that ancient skele. Meanwhile the priests, to whom certons recently examined, among the tainly the praise of kindness and rest one of a female brought from humanity towards them is due, seem Yucatan by Mr. Stephens, add their to be attempting nothing, and we weight to that of the many other know not what the government will convincing arguments in favor of dare to attempt, in order to make referring all the tribes of the conti- them fit for liberty. nent to one source.
ON VOWEL CHANGES IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
The vocalism of the English lan- ble to great fluctuation. Some have guage has the appearance of great supposed that little or no regard is irregularity. The vowel sound, to be had to the vowels in ascer. whether we compare different words taining the origin and affinity of lan. from the same root, or present forms guages. Anomaly, however, is of with ancient ones, or analogous ten obedience to a higher law, or at forms in co-existing dialects, is lia most a conflict of different laws. To investigate the nature of these the words is affected in a way corphonetic changes, has been an im- responding with the nature of the portant object with modern philolo- vowel. gists.
II. There is a play of vowels in In the present state of philolog. Teutonic words formed by redupliical science we are able to reduce cation, one of the more simple and many of these fluctuations of vowel mechanical processes in the formasounds under general heads, and to tion of language ; as,
chit-chat; give a philosophical, or at least a ding.dong ; zig-zag ; whim-wham ; plausible explanation. These ex- mish-mash. planations, it ought to be observed, These forms are produced by often refer to an earlier, and not to iterating or repeating the same word. the present state of the language. The shortening of the vowel in the
We hope to show that something first part of the compound is mere. has been done in this importantly a preparation for the fuller sound branch of human learning, and to in the second. It is a euphonic awaken a degree of interest in more process, which renders the whole intelligent minds to the general sub- word melodious and expressive. ject.
This mode of forming words, conAs the Anglo-Saxon is the foun. sisting in a mechanical repetition of dation of the English tongue, we the same sound, is naturally adaptshall commence with the vowel ed to express (1.) the continuous changes in the Anglo-Saxon or Teu: flow of conversation ; as, chit-chat ; tonic part of our language, pursu• tittle-tattle ; (2.) other constant and ing the natural order in which our repeated sounds; as, ding.dong ; present language has been built up. tick-tack ; (3.) certain oscillatory
I. There is a play of vowels in motions ; as, zig-zag ; see-saw ; (4.) collateral Teutonic roots, especially certain mental fluctuations or oscil. in those which are formed by onom- lations; as, whim-wham; knickatopeia ; as, gloom and gleam ; jug. knacks; (5.) some miscellaneous gle, gaggle, and giggle; cluck, clack, things involving the idea of repetiand click; croak, crack, and creak. tion; as mish-mash; slip-slop.
We hold that u, the lowest sound III. There is a play of vowels in the scale of vowels, and its mod- and diphthongs in the formation of ification o, are naturally adapted to the past tense and of the past parexpress low and obscure sounds, ticiple, in the ancient and strong inand what is dull in appearance ; Alection of Teutonic verbs; which that i, the highest in the scale of is seen, however, to much better vowels, and its modification e, are advantage in the kindred dialects adapted to express clear and shrill than in the English language. Thus, sounds, and what is bright in ap- Conjug. I. includes verbs which pearance ; and that the vowel a is have, or rather originally had, i or intermediate in its character. It is its modification e before a single evident, as we think, in the exam. consonant in the present tense, a in ples quoted above, that the vowel is the past tense, and u or its modi. significant, or that the meaning of fication o in the past participle; as, Goth. pres. brika, past brak,
part. brukans. Anglo-Sax. pres. brece,
part. brocen. Germ. pres. breche, past brach,
part. gebrochen. Eng. pres. break,
past brake, (obs.) part. broken. Conjug. II. includes verbs which nants in the present tense, a in the have, or rather originally had, i or past tense, and u or its modification its modification e before two conso- o in the past participle ; as,
past saggw, part. suggwans. Anglo-Sax. pres. singe, past sang,
part. sungen. Germ. pres. singe, past sang,
part. gesungen. pres. sing, past sang,
part. sung Conjug. III. includes verbs which tense, a in the past tense, and i or have, or rather originally had, i or its modificatione in the past partiits modificatione in the present in the present ciple; as,
. Goth. pres. giba, past gab,
part. gibans, Anglo-Sax. pres. gife, past gaf,
part. gifen. Germ. pres. gebe, past gab,
part. gegeben. Eng. pres. give,
past gave, part. given. Conjug. IV. includes verbs which modification o in the past tense, and have, or rather originally had, a in a in the past participle; as, the present tense, u (=aa) or its Goth. pres. slaha, past sloh,
part. slahans. Anglo-Sax. pres. slea,
part. slegen. Germ.
pres. schlage, past schlug, part. geschlagen. Eng. pres. slay, past slew,
part. slain. The radical vowel a in this conjugation is lengthened or doubled in the past tense.
Conjug. V. includes verbs which the present tense, and ie or i in the have, or rather originally had, ei in past tense and in the participle; as, Goth. pres. dreiba, past draib,
part. dribans. Anglo-Sax. pres. drife, past draf,
part. drifen. Germ. pres. treibe, past trieb,
part. getrieben. Eng. pres. drive, past drove,
part. driven. The radical vowel i in this conjugation is made a diphthong by vriddhi, i. e. by prefixing a or e.
Conjug. VI. includes verbs which the present tense, au in the past have, or rather originally had, iu intense, and u in the past participle; as, Goth. pres. biuga, past baug,
part. bugans. Anglo-Sax. pres. buge,
part. bowed. The radical vowel u in this conjugation is made a diphthong by vriddhi, i. e. by prefixing a or i.
IV. There is a play of vowels in 1. In the formation of verbs from the derivation of nouns from Teuto- nouns; as, to bleed from blood, nic verbs; as, band and bond from (comp. Anglo-Sax. bledan from to bind ; bat and bate from to beat; blod ;) to breed from brood, (comp. cake from to cook ; dole from to Germ. brüten from brut ;) to feed deal; doom from to deem; share from food, (comp. Anglo-Sax. fedan and shire from to shear.
from fod ;) to fill from full, (comp. These forms evidently originate Anglo-Sax. fyllan from full ;) to from, and are dependent on, the in- gild from gold, (comp. Anglo-Sax. ternal inflection of verbs, which has gildan from gold ;) to heal from been noticed under number III. hale or whole, (comp. Anglo-Sax.
V. There is an attenuation or hælan from hal.) precession of vowel in certain form. 2. In the formation of verbs from ative processes of Teutonic words. other verbs, and having a factitive
or causative sense; as, to bait from to cause to sound, from schallen, to to bite, (comp. Anglo-Sax. batan, sound; flössen, to float, from flies. from bitan, past bat ;) to fell from sen, (past floss,) to flow. to fall, (comp. Germ. fällen, from 3. In the formation of adjectives fallen ;) to float from to flow, (comp. from substantives; as, any (proGerm. flössen, from fliessen, pastnounced enny) from an, (comp. Anfloss ;) to lay from to lie, (comp. glo-Sax. ænig from an ;) English Anglo-Sax. lecgan, from licgan, past from Angle, (comp. Anglo-Sax. lag;) to set from to sit, (comp. Englisc from Angle.) Anglo-Sax. settan, from sittan, past 4. In the formation of abstract sæt;) to wend from to wind, (comp. substantives from adjectives, by Anglo-Sax. wendan, from windan, means of the suffix th; as, breadth past wand.)
from broad; length from long; In the older Teutonic dialects, and strength from strong. in some of the more modern, this 5. In the formation of certain di. change of the radical vowel, in the minutives; as, bundle from bond, formation of causative verbs, is sub- (comp. Anglo-Sax. byndel from ject to definite rules; although in bund;) chicken or chickling from our language it has the appearance cock, (comp. Anglo-Sax. cicen from of being arbitrary. In German, for cocc;) gosling from goose; kitlen example, the change consists in an from cat ; (comp. Germ. kätzchen attenuation or precession of the from katze ;) tip, with loss of termioriginal vowel ; as, drängen, to nation, from top, (comp. Germ. zippress, from dringen, (past drang,) pel from zopf.) to rush in ; tränken, to give to drink, This attenuation or precession of from trinken, (past trank,) to drink; vowel, is a process found very exzwängen, to force together, from tensively in language ; see Prof. A. zwingen, (past zwang) to force; Crosby's Grammar of the Greek schwemmen, to cause to swim, from Language, Bost. 1842. p. 17. schwimmen, (past schwamm,) to VÍ. There is an attenuation or swim; senken, to let down, frorn precession of vowel in certain inflecsinkan, (past sank,) to sink; spren. tionary processes. gen, to cause to fly, from springen, 1. In the formation of some plu(past sprang,) to fly off; schellen, ral nouns; as, Goose, plur. geese ; comp. Anglo-Sax. gos,
plur. ges. Tooth, plur. teeth; comp. Anglo-Sax. toth, plur. teth. Mouse, plur. mice; comp. Anglo-Sax. mus,
plur. mys. Louse,
plur. lice; comp. Anglo-Sax. lus, plur. lys. Brother, plur. brethren; comp. Anglo-Sax. brothor, plur. brothra. Besides the attenuation in the form. tives ; as, old, elder, eldest; comp. ation of the plural, the singular has Anglo-Sax. eald, yldre, yldest. also suffered changes; as, gos, by This change is exhibited to greatattenuation goose ; mus, by vriddhi er advantage in the kindred dialects;
as, 2. In the comparison of adjecAnglo-Sax. lang, lengre, lengest, long Anglo-Sax.
strengre, strengest, strong. Anglo-Sax. geong gyngre, gyngest, young. Anglo-Sax.
sceort, scyrtre, scyrtest, short. Anglo-Sax. heah, hyrre, hyhst, high. Germ.
arm, ärmer, ärmest, poor. Germ.
grösser, grössest, great. Germ. kurz, kürzer,