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Dynasties XV:and XVI., Hyksos or Shepherd Kings.
The Hyksos kings, according to Manetho, were :-

Salatis, who reigned 19 years.
Bnon, who reigned 44
Pachnan, who reigned 61

who reigned 50
Archles, who reigned 49

Aphobis, who reigned 61 Josephus, quoting Manetho, says that the Hyksos kept possession of Egypt for 511 years, and Julius Africanus declares that the period was 518 years; but it is impossible for the total of the reigns of the XVth dynasty to amount to either of these numbers of years. The chief god of the Hyksos was SET

The Hyksos kings of whom remains exist are :-
Rā-ha-user Åpepa.
Rā-āa-qenen Åpepå.
Set-āa-pehpeḥ Nubti.
Rā-seuser-en Khian.

To this period may belong the kings :
Rā-ka-Set (OUN

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Dynasty XVII., from Thebes.
Rā-seqenen I. Tau-āa.
Rā-seqenen II. Tau-āa-āa.
Rā-seqenen III. Tau-āa-qen. He died in

battle, and is probably the king who succeeded in
inflicting a crushin : defeat on the Hyksos.

Rā-senekht-en, who was, perhaps, succeeded by



Dynasty XVIII., from Thebes. 1700. Aāḥmes I., who re-established the independence of

Egypt. He captured the city of Avaris, and reconquered the tribes of the Eastern Desert and

Syria, and made an expedition into the Sûdân. 1666. Amen-ḥetep (Amenophis) I. He founded the

brotherhood of Amen at Thebes. 1533. Tehuti-mes (Thothmes) I. He occupied Nubia

so far south as Napata (Gebel Barkal). 1600. Tehuti-mes (Thothmes) II. Son of Thothmes I.

and Mut-nefert. He married Hatshepset. 1550. Hāt-shepset, daughter of Thothmes I. and Queen

Åāhmes, and sister and wife of Thothmes II.
She sent an expedition to Punt. The architect
Sen-Mut built for her the famous temple TCHESER

i.e., the “Holy of Holies," commonly known as the “Temple of Dêr alBaḥarî.” She sent an expedition to Punt by sea. Her tomb was opened by Mr. Theodore M. Davis

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in 1904.

Tehuti-mes (Thothmes) III., the son of Thoth

mes II. by the lady Åset, made at least thirteen expeditions into Mesopotamia and other countries, and returned laden with spoil. On the death of his aunt ņāt-shepset, he caused her name to be obliterated in several places on the walls of her temple. He was one of the greatest kings that ever ruled over Egypt. The best summary of the conquests of Thothmes III. is given on a stele in


the Museum in Cairo. The text is a speech of 1550. the god Åmen-Rā addressed to Thothmes. After

describing the glory and might which he has attached to his name, he goes on to mention the countries which he had made his son Thothmes to conquer.

The countries enumerated include Tchah and Ruthen in northern Syria, Phænicia and Cyprus, Mathen or Mitani on the borders of Mesopotamia by the Euphrates, the countries along the Red Sea, the land of Nubia and the countries lying to the south of it, and the northern parts of Africa. Although Thothmes wasted and destroyed these lands, it cannot be said that he was successful in imposing the yoke of Egypt upon them permanently, for history shows that on the accession to the throne of each of his successors it was necessary to re-conquer them. Many of the phrases are stereotyped expressions which we find repeated in the texts of other kings. This monument was found at Karnak, on the site of the famous temple of Åmen of the Apts, and shows marks of erasures made by the order of Amenophis IV., the king who vainly tried to upset

the worship of Amen. 1566. Amen-hetep II. Son of Thothmes III. and Hāt

shepset, the daughter of the great queen of the same name. He made an expedition into Syria, and slew seven chiefs with his own hand. Two statues of this king were found at Wâd Bâ Nagaa, which seems to prove that his rule extended over

the Island of Meroë. 1533. Tehuti-mes IV. He cleared the Sphinx from

the sand under which it was buried. The tomb of this king was opened by Mr. Theodore M. Davis in 1902 and 1903.


1500. Amen-hetep III., the Memnon of the Greeks,

warred successfully in the lands to the south of Egypt and in Asia. He made it a custom to go into Mesopotamia to shoot lions, and, while there he married Gilukhipa, a daughter of Shutarna, king of Mitani, a sister and daughter of Tushratta, the king of Mitani, and a sister and two daughters of Kadashman-Bêl (?), king of Karaduniyash; he afterwards made proposals of marriage for another daughter of this latter king called Sukharti. His chief wife was the lady Thi, who was the mother of the “heretic king” Àmenhetep IV., or Khu-en-Åten. The tomb of her parents was discovered and excavated by Mr. Theodore M. Davis in 1905. Some forty years ago Dr. Birch proposed to read the name of this king “Akh-en-Åten.”

The importance of the letters and despatches from kings of Babylon, Mesopotamia, and Phænicia to Amen-hetep III. has already been mentioned.

1450. Amen-hetep IV. or Khu-en-Åten (“spirit of

the solar disk"). He was the founder of the city Khuåten, the ruins of which are called Tell al-Amarna, and of the "heresy” of the diskworshippers. The god whom this king delighted

i.l., the solar disk, which was regarded as the source of all things. The religion appears to have been a sort of glorified materialism, and the ceremonies connected with it were similar to those of the old Heliopolitan sun-god. In so far as it rejected all other gods, the Aten religion was monotheistic. He was succeeded by kings who were worshippers of


Amen, and who obtained the throne through 1450. marriage with his daughters.

Tut-ankh-Åmen, son of Åmen-ḥetep IV by a lady

who was not of royal rank. He succeeded by

virtue of his marriage with Ankh-s-en-pa-åten. Ai. He married a relative of Amen-ḥetep IV., and

so obtained a right to the throne of Egypt. Heru-em-heb, son of Queen Mut-netchemet.

Dynasty XIX., from Thebes. 1400. Rameses I. He waged a war against the Kheta in

Western Syria, and was obliged to make a treaty

with their Chief. 1366. Seti I., son of Rameses I., conquered the rebellious

tribes in Western Asia, and built the Memnonium at Abydos. He was famous as a builder, and attended with great care to the material welfare of his kingdom. He is said to have built a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea. It is a noteworthy fact that this king is called after the name of the god Set, the chief power of evil in the Egyptian theological system. He encouraged the goldmining industry by building wells in the Eastern Desert, and he founded a temple in the Third

Cataract near the modern village of Dulgo. 1333. Rameses II. subjugated Libya, Nubia, Syria, and

Mesopotamia. He was a great builder, and a liberal patron of the arts and sciences ; learned men like Pentaurt were attached to his court. He is famous as one of the oppressors of the Israelites, and as the builder of the treasure cities of Pithom and Raamses. The chief event in his reign was his war against the Kheta, a confederation of tribes of Northern Syria. The Kheta suffered severely in

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