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the very least of *them contained above fifteen thousand inhabitants.

In short, if any one will suppose that Galilee is inferior to Perea in magnitude, he will be obliged to prefer it before it in its strength. For this is all capable of cultivation; and is every where fruitful. But for Perea, which is indeed much larger in extent, the greater part of it is desert, rough, and less disposed for the production of the milder kinds of fruits. Yet it has a moist soil, in other parts, and produces all kinds of fruits; and its plains are planted with trees of various sorts, but the olive-tree, the vine, and the palm-tree, are chiefly cultivated there. It is also sufficiently watered with torrents, which issue out of the mountains; and with springs that never fail to run, even when the torrents fail as they do in the dog-days, Now the length of Perea is from Macherus to Pella; and its breadth from Philadelphia to Jordan. Its northern parts are bounded by Pella, as we have already said; as well as its western by Jordan. The land of Moab is its southern border; and its eastern limits reach to Arabia, and Silbonitis; and besides to Philadelphine, and Gerasa.

Now as to the country of Samaria, it lies between Judea and Galilee. It begins at a village that is in the great plain, called Ginea; and ends at the Acrabene toparchy: and is entirely of the same nature with Judea. For both countries are made up of hills and vallies; and are moist enough for agriculture ; and are very fruitful. They have abundance of trees, and are full of autumnal fruit, both that which grows wild, and that which is the effect of cultivation. They are not naturally watered by many rivers; but derive their chief moisture from rain-water, of which they have no want. And for those rivers wbich they have, all their waters are exceeding sweet. By reason also of the excellent grass they have, their cattle yield more milk than do those in other places. And what is the greatest sign of excellency, and of abundance, they each of them are very full of people.

In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anauth, which is also named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea. The southern parts of Judea, if they be measured length


* These were most probably the cities, not the villages.

ways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia. The Jews that dwell there call it Jordan. However, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan, to Joppa. The city Jerusalem is situate in the very middle. On which account some have, with sagacity enough, called that city the navel of the country. Nor, indeed, is Judea destitute of such delights as come from the sea : since its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais. It was parted into eleven portions. Of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme; and presided over all the neighbouring country, as the head does over the body. As to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over their several toparchies. Gophna was the second of those cities; and next to that Acrabatta : after them Thamna, Lydda, Emmaus, Pella, Idumea, Engaddi, Herodium, and Jericho : and after them canie Jampia, and Joppa : as presiding over the neighbouring people. And besides these there were the region of Gamala, and Gaulanitis, Batanea, and Trachonitis ; which are also parts of the kingdom of Agrippa. This last country begins at mount Libanus, and the fountains of Jordan; and reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias; and in length is extended from a village called Arpha, as far as Julias. Its inhabitants are a mixture of Jews and Syrians. And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, and those that lie round about it.




NOW *the auxiliaries which were sent to assist the people of Sepphoris, being a thousand horsemen, and six thousand footmen, under Placidus the tribune, pitched their camp in two bodies, in the #great plain. The foot were put into the city, to be a guard to it; but the horse lodged abroad in the camp. These last, by marching continually one way or other, and overrunning the parts of the adjoining country, were very troublesome to Josephus, and his men. They also plundered all the places that were out of the liberties of the city, and intercepted such as durst go abroad. On this account it was that Josephus marched against the city; as hoping to take what he had lately encompassed with so strong a wall, before they revolted from the rest of the Galileans, that the Romans would have had much ado to take it. By which means he proved too weak, and failed of his hopes; both as to the forcing the place, and as to his prevailing with the people of Sepphoris, to deliver it up to him. But by this means he provoked the Romans to treat the country according to the laws of war. Nor did the Romans, out of the anger they bore at this attempt, leave off either by night, or by day, burning the places in the plain ; and stealing away the cattle that were in the country; and killing whatsoever appeared capable of fighting perpetually; and leading the weaker people as slaves into captivity. So that Galilee was completely filled with fire and blood. Nor was it exempted from any kind of misery or calamity. For the only refuge they had was, that when they were pursued, they could retire to the cities which bad been walled by Josephus.

* A. D. 67. * There were too great plains in Judea. See Reland, tom. 1. chap. 55. Vol. IV

But as to Titus, he sailed over from Achaia to Alexandria, and that sooner than the winter season did usually permit. So he took with him those forces he was sent for; and, marching with great expedition, he came suddenly to Ptolemais : and there finding his father, together with the two legions, the fifth and the tenth, which were the most eminent legions of all, he joined them to that fifteenth legion which was with his father. Eighteen cohorts followed these legions. There came also five cohorts from Cæsarea, with one troop of horsemen : and five other troops of horsemen from Syria. Now these ten cohorts had severally a thousand footmen, but the other thirteen cohorts had no more than six hundred footmen apiece, with a hundred and twenty horsemen. There were also a considerable number of auxiliaries got together, that came from the kings * Antiochus, Agrippa, and Sohemus : each of them contributing one thousand footmen that were archers, and a thousand horsemen. Malichus also, the king of Arabia, sent a thousand horsemen; besides five thousand footmen, the greatest part of which were archers. So that the whole army, including the auxiliaries sent by the kings, as well horsemen as footmen, when all were united together, amounted to sixty thousand; besides the servants, who as they followed in vast numbers, so because they had been trained up in war, with the rest, ought not to be distinguished from the fighting men. For as they were in their master's service in times of peace, so did they undergo the like dangers with them in times of war. Insomuch that they were inferior to none either in skill or in strength; only they were subject to their masters.

* This Antiochus was king of Commagene. Agrippa's kingdom has just been described, chap. 3. It contained, as Reland distinctly observes, only the tetrarchy of Philip given him by Claudius, and part of Galilec given him by Nero, i. e. that part which contained Tiberias, Taricheæ, and Julias, with fourteen villages thereto belonging; and Sohemus was king of Emesa in Syria.



NOW one cannot but admire at the precaution of the Romans, in providing themselves of such household servants, as might not only serve at other times for the common offices of life, but might also be of advantage to them in their wars. And, indeed, if any vne do but attend to the other parts of their military discipline, he will be forced to confess, that their obtaining so large a dominion, has been the acquisition of their valour, and not the bare gift of fortune. For they do not begin to use their weapons first in time of war: por do they then put their hands first into motion, while they avoided so to do in times of peace. But as if their weapons did always cling to them, they have never any truce from warlike exercises. Nor do they stay till times of war admonish them to use them. For their military exercises difier not at all from the real use of their arms. But each soldier is every day exercised, and that with great diligence, as if it were in time of war. This is the reason why they bear the fatigue of battles so easily : for peither can any disorder remove them from their usual regularity; por can fear affright them out of it; nor can labour tire them. Which firmness of conduct makes them always to overcome those

that have not the same firmness. Nor would he be mistaken that should call those their exercises bloodless battles; and their battles sanguinary exercises. Nor can their enemies easily surprise them with the suddenness of their incursions. For as soon as they have marched into an enemy's land, they do not begin to fight till they have walled their camp about. Nor is the fence they raise rashly made, or uneven Nor do they all abide in it; nor do those that are in it take their places at random. But if it happen that the ground be uneven, it is first levelled. Their camp is also foursquare by measure: and carpenters are ready in great numbers, with their tools, to erect their buildings for them.

As for what is within the camp, it is set apart for tents : but the outward circumference resembles a wall, and is adorned with towers at equal distances : where between the towers stand the engines for throwing arrows and darts, and for slinging stones : and where they lay all other engines that can annoy the enemy, all ready for their several operations. They also erect four gates, one at each side of the circumference : and those large enough for the entrance of the beasts, and wide enough for making excursions, if occasion should require. They divide the camp within into streets, very conveniently; and place the tents of the commanders in the middle : but in the very midst of all is the general's own tent, in the nature of a temple. Insomuch that it appears to be a city built on the sudden; with its market-place, and place for handicraft trades; and with seats for the superior and inferior officers; where if any differences arise, their causes are heard and determined. The camp, and all that is in it, is also speedily encompassed with a wall round about; and this by the multitude and the skill of the labourers. And if occasion require, a trench is drawn round the whole, whose depth is four cubits, and its breadth is equal.*

* This description of the exact symmetry and regularity of the Roman army, and of the Roman encampments; with the sounding their trumpets, and order of war, described in this and the next chapter, is so very like to the symmetry and regularity of the people of Israel, in the wilderness, that one cannot well avoid the supposal, that the one was the ultimate pattern of the other; and that the tactics of the ancients were taken from the rules given by God to Moses. And it is supposed by some skilful in these matters, that these accounts of Josephus's, as to the Roman camp, armour, and conduct in war, are preferable to those in the Roman anthors themselves.

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