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both my works ; for, as I said, I have translated the Antiqui. ties out of our sacred books ; which I easily could do, fince I was a priest by my birth, and have studied that philosophy which is contained in those writings : And for the History of the War, I wrote it as having been an actor myself in many of its transactions, an eye witness in the greatest part of the rest, and was not unacquainted with any thing whatsoever that was either said or done in it. How impudent then must thole deserve to be esteemed, that undertake to contradict me about the true state of those affairs ? who, although they pretend to have made use of both the emperor's own memoirs, yet could not they be acquainted with our affairs, who fought against them.
11. This digression I have been obliged to make out of ne. ceflity, as being desirous to expose the vanity of those that profers to write histories ; and I suppose I have sufficiently declared that this custom of transmitting down the histories of ancient times hath been better preserved by those nations which are called Barbarians, than by the Greeks themselves, I am now willing, in the next place, to say a few things to those that endeavour to prove that our conftitution is but of Jate time, for this reason, as they pretend, that the Greek writers have said nothing about us ; after which I shall produce teftimonies for our antiquity out of the writings of foreigners : I shall also demonstrate that such as cast reproaches upon our nation do it very unjustly.
12. As for ourselves, therefore, we neither inhabit a mari. time country, nor do we delight in merchandise, nor in such a mixture with other men as arises from it; but the cities we dwell in are remote from the sea, and having a fruitful country for our habitation, we take pains in culiivating that only. Our principal care of all is this, to educate our children well ; and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life, to observe the laws that have been given us, and to keep those rules of piety that have been delivered down to us. Since, therefore, besides what we have already taken notice of, we have had a peculiar way of living of our own, there was no occasion offered us in ancient ages for intermixing, among the Greeks, as they had for mixing among the Egy plians, by their intercourse of exporting and importing their leveral goods ; as they also mixed with the Phenicians, who lived by the sea. (ide, by means of their love of lucre in trade and mer. chandise. Nor did our forefathers betake themselves, as did some others, to robbery ; nor did they, in order to gain more wealth, fall into foreign wars, although our country contain. ed many ten thousands of men of courage sufficient for that purpole. For this reason it was that the Phenicians themselves came soon by trading and navigation to be known to the Grecians, and by their means the Egyptians became known to the Grecians also, as did all thole people whence the Pheni. cians in long voyages over the seas carried wares to the Gre. cians. The Medes also and the Persians, when -sos, that is, lords of Asia, became well known to them; and this wto the sacially true of the Per Gans, who led their armies as far ass acother continent, (Europe). The Thracians were also knowled to them by the nearness of their countries; and the Scythians by the means of thole that failed to Pontus ; for it was so in general that all maritime nations, and those that inhabited near the eastern or western seas, became most known to thole that were desirous to be writers; but such as had their habitations farther from the sea were for the most part unknown to them : . Which things appear to have happened as to Europe also, where the city of Rome, that hath this long time been possefl. ed ot so much power, and hath performed such great actions in war, is yet never mentioned by Herodotus, nor by Thu. cydides, nor by any one of their contemporaries ; and it was. very late, and with great difficulty, that the Romans became known to the Greeks. Nay, those that were reckoned the most exact historians, and Ephorus for one, were so very ig. norant of the Gauls and the Spaniards, that he supposed the Spaniards, who inbabit so great a part of the western regions of the earth, to be no more than one city. Those historians also have ventured to describe such customs as were made use of by them, which they never had either done or said ; and the reason why thele writers did not know the truth of their affairs, was this, that they had not any commerce together : but the reason why they wrote such falsities was this, that they had a mind to appear to know things which others had not known. How can it then be any wonder, it our nation was no more known to many of the Greeks, nor had given them any occasion to mention them in their writings, while they were so remote from the sea, and had a conduet of life so pea culiar to themselves.
13. Let us now put the case, therefore, that we made use of this argument concerning the Grecians, in order to prove that their nation was not ancient, because nothing is said of them in our records ; would not they laugh at us all, and probably give the same reasons for our silence that I have now alleged, and would produce their neighbour nations as witnesses to their own antiquity ? Now the very same thing will I endeavour to do; for I will bring the Egyptians and the Phenicians as my principal witnesses, because nobody can complain of their testimony as false, on account that they are known to have borne the greatest ill.will towards us : I mean this as to the Egyptians in general all of them, while of the Phenicians it is known the Tyrians have been most of all in the same ill disposition towards us : Yet do I contess that I cannot say the fame of the Chaldeans, since our first leaders and ancestors were derived from them, and they do make mention of us Jews in their records, on accountotihe kindred there is between ws. Now, when I shall have made my assertions good, so far
of Egypt that he was a captive *, and afterward lent for his brethren into Egypt by the king's permission. But as for these matters, I thall make a more exact inquiry about them else. where t.
15. But now I shall produce the Egyptians as witnefes to the antiquity of our nation. I shall therefore here bring in Manetho again, and what he writes as to the order of the times in this case : And thus he speaks : " When this people OT shepherds were gone out of Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmosis the king of Egypt, who drove them out, reigned afterward twenty-five years and four months, and then died : After him his fon Chebron took the kingdom for thirteen years ; after whom came Amenophis, for twenty years and seven months ; then came his sister Ainesses, for twenty-one years and nine months; after her came Mephres, for twelve years and nine months; after hiin was Mephramuthosis, for twenty-five years and ten months; after him was Thmofis, for nine years and eight months; after him came Amenophis, for thirty years and ten months ; atter him came Orus, for thirty-six years and five months ; then came jis daughter Acenchres, for twelve years and one month; then was her brother Rathotis, for nine years ; then was Acencheres, for twelve years and five months; then came another Acencheres, for twelve years and three months ; atter him Armais, for four years and one month; after him was Ramesses, for one year and four months; after him came Armesses Miammoun, for fixty years and two months; after him Amenophis, for nineteen years and fix months ; after him came Sethosis and Ramesses, who had an army ot horse, and a naval force. This king appointed his brother Armais, to be his deputy over Egypt. (In another copy it ftood thus : After him came Serbolis and Ramesses, two brethren, the former of which had a naval force, and in an hostile manner destroyed those that met him upon the lea; but as he slew Ramesses in no long time afterward, lo he appointed another of his brethren to be his depuiy over Egypi.] He also gave him all the other authority of a king, but with these only injunctions, that he thould not wear che diadem, nor be injurious to the Queen, che mother of his children, and that he should not meddle with the other concubines of the king ; while he made an expedition against Cyprus, and Phe. nicia, and besides against the Assyrians and the Medes. He then subdued them all, forne by his arms, some without fighting, and some by the terror of his great army ; and being puff. ed up by the great successes he had had, he went still on the more boldly, and over threw the cities and countries that lay in the eastern parts. But after some considerable time, Arma
* In our copies of the book of Genesis and of Josephus, this Joleph never calls himself a captive, when he was with the king of Egypt, though he does call himfell a feruant, a slave, or a captive, many times in the Testament of the twelve Patriarchs, under joseph, sec. 1, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16.
+ This is now wanting.
is, who was left in Egypt, did all those very things, by way of opposition, which his brother had forbid him to do, with. out fear ; for he uled violence to the Queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them : Nay, at the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up to oppole his brother. But then, he who was set over the priests of Egypt, wrote letters to Sethos, and intormed him of all that had happened, and how his brother had set up to oppose him: He therefore returned back to Pe. lulium immediately, and recovered his kingdom again. The country also was called from his name Egypt; for Manetho says that Sethosis was himselt called Egyptus, as was his bro. ther Armais called Danaus.''*
16. This is Manetho's account. And evident it is from the number of years by him let down belonging to this interval, it they be summed up together, that thele Thepherds, as they are here called, who were no other than our forefathers, were delivered out of Egypt, and came thence, and inhabited this country, three hundred and ninety-three years before Danaus came to Argos; although the Argives look upon himt as their most ancient king. Maneths, therefore, bears this testimony to two points of the greatest consequence to our purpose, and those from the Egyptian records themselves. In the first place, that we came out of another country into Egypt; and that withal our deliverance out of it was to ancient in time, as to have preceded the siege of Troy almost a thousand years ;t but then, as to thole things which Manetho adds, not from the E. gypiian records, but, as he contelles himself tron some stories ot an uncertain original, I will disapprove them hereafter particularly, and shall demonstrate that they are no better than incredible fables.
17. I will now, therefore, pals from these records, and come to those that belong to the Phenicians, and concern our nation and shall produce attestations to what I have said out of them. There are then records among the Tyrians, that take in the history of many years, and thele are public writings, and are kept with great exactness, and includes accounts of the facts done among them, and such as concern their transactions with 0.
* Of this Egyptian chronology of Manetho, as mistaken by Josephus, and of these Phenician Thepherds, as faltely supposed by him, and others after him, to have been the Israelites in Egypt, ice Ellay on the Old Teltament, Appendix, page :82–198. And note here, that when Josephus tells us that the Greeks or Are gives looked on this Danaus as apxatoTATOG, a most ancient, or the most ancient king of Argos, he need not be lupposed to mean, in the ttrictest sense, that they had no one king lo ancient as tie ; for it is certain that th y owned nine kings before him, and Inachus at the head of them. See Authentic Records, part II. page 983, as Jolephus could not but know very well; but that be was esteemed as very ancient by them, and that they knew they had been first of all denominatei Danai from this very ancient king Daraus. Nor does this superlative degree always imply the most ancient of all without exception, but is sometimes to be rendered very ancient only as is the case in the like superlative degrees of other words allo.
+ Sce the preceding nole.
ther nations also, thofe I mean which were worth remembering. Therein it was recorded, that the temple was built by king Solomon at Jerusalem, one hundred torty-three years and eight months before the Tyrians built Carthage; and in their annals the building of our temple is related : For Hirom, the king of Tyre, was the friend of Solomon our king and had fuch friendship transmitted down to him from his forefathers. He thereupon was ambitious to contribute to the Splendour of this edifice of Solomon's and made him a present of one bun. dred and twenty talents of gold. He also cut down the most excellent tinber out of that mountain which is called Libanas, and sent it to him for adorning the roof. Solomon also not only made him many other presents, by way of requital, but gave him a country in Galilce also, that was called Chabulon.* But there was another passion, a philosophic inclination of theirs, which cemented the friendship that was betwixt them; for they sent mutual problems to one another, witb a desire to have them unriddled by each other ; wherein Solo. mon was fuperior to Hirom, as he was wiser than he in other respeels: And many of the epifles that passed between them are still preserved among the Tyrians. Now that this may not depend on my bare word, I will produce for a witnels Dius, one that is believed to have written the Phenician hifto. ry after an accurate manner. This Dius, therefore, writes thus, in his histories of the Phenicians : “ Upon the death of Abibalus, his fon Hirom took the kingdom. This king rail. ed banks at the eaftern parts of the city, and enlarged it ; he also joined the temple of Jupiter Olympus, which stood be. fore in an illand by itself, to the city, by raising a causeway between them, and adorned that temple with donations of gold. He moreover went up to Libanus, and had timber cut dowa for the building of the temples. They say farther, that Solomon, when he was king ot Jerusalem, fent problems to Hirom to be solved, and desired he would fend others back for him to solve, and that he who could not solve the problems propo. sed to him, should pay money to him that solved threin. And when Hirom had agreed to the proposals, but was not able to solve the problems, he was obliged to pay a great deal of mo. ney, as a penalty for the same. As also they relate, that one Abdemon, a man of Tyre, did solve the problems, and propose others which Solomon could not solve, upon which he was obliged to repay a great deal of money to Hirom." Thele things are attested to by Dius, and confirm what we have said upon the same subjects before.
18. And now I shall add Menander, the Ephesian, as an ad. ditional witness. This Menander wrote the acts that were done both by the Greeks and Barbarians, under every one of the Tyrian kings and had taken much pains to learn their history. out of their own records. Nov, when he was writing abou.
• 1 Kings ix, 13.