« PreviousContinue »
when he says, that there is first a sensa- | whereas it can be admitted into philosotion and then a belief in self. In a later phical discussion only when it denotes age, Sir W. Hamilton connected the principles which are regulating the mind qualitative theory of Stewart with the of all. We have a remark to make as to phenomenal theory of Kant. In doing so the place in which he discusses these funhe was guilty, we must take the liberty damental laws. It is after he has gone of saying, of a great and inexcusable over the greater number of the faculties, blunder. Stewart would have repudiated and he seems to treat them as involved the phenomenal theory of Kant as at all in Reason. And we acknowledge that identical with his own. Stewart, no there may be some advantages in first doubt, speaks of the phenomena of the going over the faculties and then speakmind, but he means by phenomena not, ing of these fundamental laws. But we as Kant did, appearances, but individual must guard against the idea that these facts to be referred to a law; and quali- principles have not been involved in the ties with him were realities. But, legiti- faculties which he has previously gone mately or illegitimately, Hamilton iden- over, such as Perception, Abstraction,
and tifying the qualitative theory with the Memory. The “Fundamental Laws" are phenomenal, deduces from them a system not to be regarded as different from the of relativity, which ended in nihilism, or Faculties; they are, in fact, the Necessary at least in nescience. We are glad to Laws of the Faculties, and guiding their notice that Mr. Mansel, notwithstanding exercise. These laws work in all minds, his great and just admiration of Hamilton, infant and mature, sane and insane. M. has emancipated himself from this funda- Morel was asked to examine a prisoner mental error. He proclaims: “I am im- who seemed to be deranged, and he asked mediately conscious of myself, seeing and him how old he was; to which the prihearing, willing and thinking." (Proleg. soner replied, “ 245 francs, 35 centimes, Logica, p. 129; also, Art. Metaph. in 124 carriages,” etc. To the same quesEncyc. Brit.) We have sometimes tion, more distinctly asked, he replied, thought, that if Stewart had foreseen all“ 5 metres, 75 centimetres.” When asked the logical consequences to be deduced how long he had been deranged, he anfrom his views, he would have fallen back swered, “ Cats, always cats.” M. Morel on the same common-sense doctrine. We at once declared his madness to be simuregret that Mr. Mansel has not gone a lated, and states: "In their extreme aber. step farther, and placed our cognition of rations, in their most furious delirium, matter on the same footing in this respect madmen do not confound what it is imas our knowledge of mind. We are sure, possible for the most extravagant logic to at least, that this would be altogether in confound. There is no madman who the spirit of Reid and Stewart. We loses the idea of cause, of substance, of maintain that, just as by self-consciousness existence.” (See Psychol. Journal, Oct. we know self as exercising such and such 1857.) a quality, say thinking or feeling, so, by Stewart's doctrine of Causation seems sense-perception, we know a body as ex- I to us to be deficient and inadequate. He tended and exercising power or energy. is altogether right in calling it a FundaThis is the simplest doctrine ; it seems to mental Law of Belief, which necessitates be the only one consistent with conscious- the mind to rise from an effect to a cause. ness, and is the proper doctrine of natural But he does not seem to observe all that realism as distinguished from an artificial is involved in the cause. He gives in too system of relativity.
far to Hume on this subject, and prepared In the second volume of the Elements, the way for Brown's theory. He does after a feeble and chiefly verbal disquisi- not see, in particular, that causation tion on Reason, he proceeds to treat of springs from power being in the substance the “Fundamental Laws of Belief.” We or substances which act as the cause, and reckon the phrase a very happy one, and that we intuitively discover power to be a great improvement on * Common in substances both mental and material. Sense,” which labors under the disadvan- His distinction between efficient and phy. tage of being ambiguous, inasmuch as it sical cause is of a superficial and confused usually denotes that unbought, untaught character. It may be all true that, in sagacity, which is found only in certain looking at physical action, we may not men, and which others can never acquire, I know intuitively where the full efficiency
resides, whether in the physical object of reasoning.* In giving our adherence alone or in mind (the Divine) acting in it; to the Aristotelian analysis, we admit but we are certain that there is an effi- that improvements are being wrought in ciency somewhere in some substance. it by that school of logicians which has We are by no means sure that he is right sprung from Kant, and of which Hamilton in limiting power in the
sense of efficiency is the leader in this country, followed by to mental action. We agree here such eminent men as Mansel, Thomson, with the criticisms of Cousin (as indeed and Spalding. But their improvements we agree with most of the criticisms of ought not to be admitted till the formal Cousin on the Scottish School) where he logicians thoroughly deliver their exposisays, that while our first idea of cause tion of the laws of thought from all that may be derived from our own voluntary false Kantian metaphysics, which repreaction, we are at the same time intuitively sents thought as giving to the objects a led to ascribe potency to other objects "form” which is not in the objects themalso, and that Reid and Stewart, in deny- selves. Besides, we can not allow Logie ing that we discover efficiency in body, to be an à priori science except under an are acting contrary to their own principles explanation; we admit that the laws of of common-sense, and in contradiction to thought operate in the mind prior to all the universal opinion of the human race, experience, but we maintain that they can which is, that fire burns and light shines. be discovered by us only à posteriori, and (See Cousin, Phil. Ecoss., p. 437, ed. by a generalization of their individual 1857.) Stewart has also failed, as it ap- actings. pears to us, to give the proper account of But while we may thus expect a perthe intuition which regulates and under- fected Universal Logic, treating of the lies our investigations of nature. This is laws of thought as laws of thought-not not, as he represents it, a belief in the independent of objects but whatever be uniformity of nature; a belief which ap- the objects--we hope there will grow up pears to us to be the result of experience; alongside a Particular Logic, which will which experience, as it discovers the rule, be a more practically useful Logic, to conmay also announce the exceptions. The sider the laws of thought as directed to child does not believe, nor does the sav- particular classes of objects, and to treat age believe, nature to be uniform. The of such topics as Demonstrative and Prounderlying beliefs, which carry us on in bable Evidence, Induction, and Analogy. our investigations of nature are those of In regard to this latter Logic, Stewart identity of being, of substance and quality, must ever be referred to as an authority. of canse and effect. Hence it is quite So far, indeed, as the theory of definitions possible to prove a miracle which may and axioms is concerned, we prefer very not be in conformity with the uniformity much the view of Whewell
, as developed of nature, but is quite compatible, as in his Philosophy of the Inductive Sciencs. Brown has shown, with our intuitive be- But, in regard to Induction, we believe lief in causation, for when creature power that Stewart's account of it is, upon the fails we can believe in creative.
whole, the best which appeared from the It is in the second volume of the Ele time of Bacon down to this our own age. ments that we find the logical disquisitions We have now, however, two great works, of Stewart. He has utterly failed in his which have left every other far behind, strictures on Aristotle's Logic. The that of Whewell and that of Mr. J. S. School of Locke, and the School of Con- Mill. Not that we regard either of these dillac, and the School of Reid, have all as perfect. Dr. Whewell has exaggerated failed in constructing a logic of inference the place of the mental element, and has which can stand a sifting examination. expressed it in most unfortunate phraseThe Aristotelian analysis of reasoning ology, such as Fundamental Ideas and stands at this moment untouched in its Conceptions, terms which have been used radical positions. The objections of Campbell and Stewart have been answered by Whately; and those advanced by Mr. * Dr. Whately, as far as can be judged from the J. S. Mill, have been answered by Mr. editions of his work, seems entirely ignorant of all Kidd, who has also thoroughly under-century, but he has met with an acute defender in mineá Mr. Mill's own attributive theory Mr. Kidd.—See bis Primary Principles of Reasoning.
in twenty different significations, and are apt to seize on a few data as first principles, used by him to denote that the mind following them out boldly to their remotest superinduces on the facts something not consequences, and afterwards employing his in the facts, whereas the mental power ingenuity to reconcile, by means of false refinemerely enables it to discover what is in ments, his theoretical assumptions with the ex
ceptions which seem to contradict them." the facts. Mr. Mill, on the other hand, has overlooked the mental element alto- He shows that the metaphysician is safe gether, and denies all necessary and uni- from the checks met with in physics, versal truth. We may hope, in future “where speculative mistakes are contrayears, to have a perfect Inductive Logic, dicted by facts which strike our senses." by a judicious combination of those two Again, of mathematics, he says: works, but this could be done only by a man
of the same high intellectual stature “That while they increase the faculty of reaas Whewell and Mill, and this will seldom soning or deduction, they give no employment be met with. It is to be regretted that, to the other powers of the understanding consince the days of Stewart, there is not a cerned in the investigation of truth.” single Scotchman who has presented a
He adds : work on Induction of any name or value.* In regard to Analogy, the recent discove
“I have never met a mere mathematician ries as to the typical forms of animals and who was not credulous to excess.” plants will enable logicians to give a far more comprehensive and yet more strin- In the same volume he discusses caugent view of reasoning from analogy than tiously and judiciously the comparison has been done by Stewart, by Whewell, between the faculties of man and brutes. or by Mill.
We suspect, however, that the theory The third volume of the Elements treats has not yet been devised, it has certainly of certain concrete and practical matters, not been published, which is fitted to give which Stewart was peculiarly qualified to a satisfactory account of the relation of discuss, and which bring out some of the the brute to the human faculties. We finer qualities of his mind. All his disqui- suppose that Bonnet is right when he sitions had tended to become verbal, and says that we shall never be able to underhere he treats exclusively of language, stand the nature of brute instinct, till we which he does with fine discernment, but are in the dog's head without being the falls into a great blunder in regard to dog. It is certain that we have at this Sanscrit, which he represents as of com- moment nothing deserving of the name paratively late origin, and analogous to of science on this subject. We have mediæval Latin, whereas it has a litera- sometimes thought that the modern docture reaching back at least twelve hun- trine of homologues and analogues, if exdred years before Christ. He has some tended and modified to suit the new interesting, though by no means profound, object, might supply the key to enable us remarks on the sympathetic affections. to express some of the facts. Certain of But by far the finest parts of the volume the brute qualities are merely analogous are those in which he treats of the varie- to those of man, (as the wing of a butterfly ties of intellectual character, and of the is analogous to that of a bird ;) others are peculiarities of the metaphysician, mathe- homologues, but inferior in degree; while matician, the poet and the sexes. Thus, there are qualities in man different in kind of the mere metaphysician, he says, that from any in the brute. Aristotle called
brute instincts, μιμηματα της ανθρωπινης “He can not easily submit to the task of examining details, or of ascertaining facts, and is suns. They would be more accurately
described as anticipations or types of the
coming archetype. The volume closes * It is a good sign of the times, however, that we with an account of a boy born blind and have excellent works on Bacon from Eogland, France, and even Germany. The edition of the
dumb. Works of Bacon by Ellis and Spedding, now in
The Philosophical Essays are an episode course of publication, will ever be the standard one, in his system as a whole, even as his nuin consequence of the pains bestowed on it. The merous notes and illustrations are episodes public seem to expect from Mr. Spedding a life of
in the individual volumes.
We are Bacon of an impartial character, and justifying him from some of the sweeping charges of Pope and tempted, in looking at them, to take up Macaulay.
two of the subjects discussed, as a deep
interest still collects around them, and I do not think that Stewart's remarks on the questions agitated can not yet be re- this subject are exhaustive or decisive; garded as settled.
he is evidently wrong in supposing that Every careful reader of Locke's Essay Locke identified reflection with the reason must have observed two elements running which discovers truth; but his strictures through all his philosophy-the one, a are always candid and sometimes just. sensational, or rather to do justice to In the Philosophical Essays Stewart Locke, who ever refers to reflection as a has many fine observations on Taste and separate source of ideas, an experiental Beauty. On this subject he was favoraelement, and the other a rational. In the bly disposed towards the Theory of his opening of the Essay he denies innate friend Mr. Alison, and he ascribes more ideas apparently in every sense, and than he should have done to the associaaffirms that the materials of all our ideas tion of ideas. But he never gave his adare derived from sensation and reflection; hesion to this hypothesis as a full explanabut, as he advances, his language is, that tion of the phenomena. "If there was by these sources ideas are " suggested nothing," he says, “originally and intrinand furnished to the mind ;** he calls in sically pleasing or beautiful, the associatfaculties with high functions to work on ing principle would have no materials on the materials ; speaks of ideas which are which it could operate.” The theory of “ creatures and inventions of the under- association was never favorably received standing;" appeals to “natural law” and by artists, and has been abandoned long the principles of common reason;" and ago by all metaphysicians. The tendency in the Fourth Book gives a very high, or now is to return to the deeper views rather deep place to intuition; says that which had been expounded long ago by we have an intuitive knowledge of our Plato, and we may add by Augustine. own existence; speaks of the “mind per- We find that Stewart refers to the docceiving truth as the eye doth light, only trine of Augustine, who “ represents by being directed toward it ;" declares beauty as consisting in that relation of the that in the “discovery of and assent to parts of a whole to each other which con. these truths, there is no use of the discur-stitutes its unity;" and all that he has to sive faculty, no need of reasoning, but say of it is : “The theory certainly is not they are known by a superior and higher of great value, but the attempt is curious.” degree of evidence,” and talks even of a The æsthetical writers of our age would “necessary connection of ideas.” It un- be inclined to say of it that there is more fortunately happened that in France, to truth in it than in all the speculations of which Locke was introduced by Voltaire Alison, Stewart, Jeffrey, and Brown. It and the Encyclopædists, they took the may be safely said that while earnest insensation element alone, and the effect on quirers have had pleasant glimpses of thought and on morality was most disas- beauty, to no one has she revealed her full trous. Unfortunately, too, Locke has be- charms. When such writers as Cousin, come known in Germany, chiefly through Ruskin, and M'Vicar dwell so much on France, and hence we find him all over Unity, Harmony, Proportion, we are the Continent, described both by friends tempted to ask them--does then the feeland foes as a sensationalist ; and the ing of beauty not arise till we have discharge has been reëchoed in this country covered such qualities as Proportion, by Sir W. Hamilton and Mr. Morell. Unity, and Harmony ? and if they answer Yet it is quite certain that Locke has an in the affirmative, then we venture to show intellectual as well as a sensational side. them that they are themselves holding a We have, in a careful perasal of the Essay, sort of association theory; for they affirm mainly for this very end, discovered in that the beautiful object does not excite every book, and in the majority even of emotion till, as a sign, it calls forth certain the chapters, both sides of the shield; but we confess that we have not been able to tellectualism of Locke," by T. E. Webb, now, we discover the line that joins them. We believe, Professor of Moral Philosophy in Dublin
University. Most appropriately does such a work
come from a college, which, ever since the days of * This is the very language adopted by Reid and Molyneux, the correspondent of Locke, has held the Stewart.
Essay on the Human Understanding in the highest + The rational side of Locke has been brought repute. We are not convinced that Mr. Webb has out in a work of ability lately published, “ The In- succeeded in proving the consistency of Locke.
ideas-we suspect of truth or goodness. The two volumes on the Philosophy of We are not quite sure that we can go the the Active and Moral Powers, were publength of this school, when they speak of lished by Stewart immediately before his beauty as a quality necessary, immutable, death. The leading ideas unfolded in them eternal, like truth and moral good, and had been given, in an epitomized form in connect it so essentially with the very the Outlines published many years before. nature of God. There are sounds, and They are somewhat too bulky for all the colors and proportions felt to be beauti- matter they contain, and they want someful by us, but which may not be appreciat- what of the freshness of his earlier works ; ed by other intelligences, and which are but they are characterized by profound so relished by us, simply because of the wisdom, by a high moral tone, by a stately peculiarities of our human organization eloquence, and the felicitous application of and constitution. We acknowledge that, general principles to the elucidation of when we follow these colors, and sounds, practical points. He begins with the Inand proportions, sufficiently far, we come stinctive Principles of Action, which he invariably to mathematical ratios and re- classifies as Appetites, Desires, and Affeclations; but we are now, be it observed, tions. The arrangement is good, in some in the region of immutable truth. Other respects, but is by no means exhaustive. As kinds of beauty, arising from the contem- the next step in advance in this department plation of happiness and feeling land us in of mental science, an attempt must be the moral good, which is also necessary made to give a classification of man's moand eternal. We have sometimes thought tive principles, or of the ends by which that beauty is a gorgeous robe spread man may be swayed in desire and action. over certain proportions of the true and Among these will fall to be placed, first of the good, to recommend them to our re- all, pleasure and pain; that is, man has a gards and cluster our affections round natural disposition to take to pleasure and them. Our æsthetic emotions being thus avoid pain. But this is far from being the roused, the association of ideas comes in sole motive principle in man's mind. merely as a secondary agent, to prolong There are many others. There is, for exand intensify the feeling.*
ample, the tendency of every native facul
ty to act, and this irrespective of pleasure * We have had of late two excellent works on or pain. Again, there are particular natuBeauty by Scotchmen. Professor Blackie's "Lec ral appetencies, which look to ends of tures on Beauty" are written quite in his own dash their own, towards (to use the language ing and spirited manner, and comprise a vast amount of solid truth. A periodical which represents young of Butler) particular external things of Oxford and Cambridge, congratulates him on his hits which the mind bath always a particular at the national faith of Scotland; and yet we know idea or perception towards these things not that he has any thing better to substitute, and we themselves, such as knowledge, power, are sure he would repudiate that mixture of highchurchism and low doctrinism which his critics are
fame, and this independent of the pleasure seeking to recommend. His translations from Plato to be derived from them. Higher than appended are thorough reproductions of the original. all, and claiming to be higher, is the Mr. Blackie would confer a mighty boon on Scotland, moral motive, or obligation to do right. and help to soften the hardness of the Scottish cha- A classification of these motive principles, racter, if he could create in Edinburgh University a taste for Plato as strong as the taste for Aristotle in even though only approximately correct, Oxford. The other work is on “The Beautiful in would serve most important purposes in Nature, Art, and Life. By A. J. Symington," an philosophy generally, and more especially
in ethics and all the social sciences. Very compromising religious sects. It is the production low and inadequate views have been taken gathered his knowledge from afar. He does not of these motive principles of humanity, esprofess to sound all the theoretical depths of the pecially by those who represent man as subject; but, on a rich ground-work of his own họ capable of being swayed only by the prosbas set gems selected from all sorts of authors sacred pect of securing pleasure or avoiding pain. chitecture, sculpture
, painting, poetry, music, and Mr. Veitch seems to expect great results life. When Sir
. W. Scott, represented the Cove to be derived from recognizing the place nanters as opposed to all sorts of maply sports, Dr. and importance, in ethical speculation, of M'Crie showed that their ministers often joined in the Aristotelic doctrine of the pleasurasuch games, and at times stood first. If any one will maintain that Scotland's stern sects are opposed ble—a grand and fertile, but little illus. to the fine arts, we bid him read Symington's work trated principle.” We have an expectaon the Beautiful.
tion that some curious questions will be