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Mar.xiv.68. I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest.
Jo. xviii,18. And the servants and officers stood there, who had
made a fire of coals, for it was cold, and they warmed
themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed
himself.

25. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of
his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

26.

27.

One of the servants of the High Priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did I not see thee in the garden with him?

Peter then denied again.

Mar.xiv.68. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew;
Jo. xviii.27. and immediately the cock crew.

An objection to the words of this passage has been raised,
because it is supposed inconsistent with a canon of the Jewish
Church, which forbids the rearing of cocks at Jerusalem, for
fear they should scratch up unclean animals with their feet, and
thereby pollute sacred things. In answer to this assertion, it is
affirmed that the law had not been enacted at that period-that
this bird was always kept in the temple (a)-that the word 2
signifies a man, or a crier-and-that the term cock-crowing, re-
lated only to a particular hour of the morning. After enumerat-
ing these opinions, Schoetgen, gives his own solution. As the
crowing of the cock is mentioned as a fact, he concludes that
it is to be considered as having actually taken place, as we
should interpret a passage in a classical author. Peter, in the
silence of the night, could as easily hear the cocks that were
crowing out of the city, as the Italian cocks could be heard in
Italy, or the cocks in Asia Minor at Constantinople; especially
as the house of Caiaphas was not far from the wall. The cock
which Peter heard might have been kept by the Romans, and
not by the Jews, as chickens were used by them in augury. And
though it was prohibited to feed cocks, it was not prohibited
to buy or sell them; the cock, therefore, which now crowed,
might have been purchased for the purpose of being killed the
next day. Therefore, in whatever way the subject is considered,
it is certainly true that the cock might have been heard by
Peter at Jerusalem (b).

The Jewish doctors distinguish the cock crowing into the first, second, and third. The first was called, -the second, ww-when he repeats it. The third, www—when he does it the third time, as in Mark xiii. 35–12. Luke xii. 38. This custom was observed also by Heathen nations. According to St. John xiii. 38. St. Luke xxii. 34. and St. Matthew xxvi. 34. Our Saviour predicts the cock shall not crow; that is, shall not have finished his crowing, before thou deny me thrice. Lightfoot (c) reconciles the words of these three evangelists with those of St. Mark, by suggesting, that as the hour approached when the event was to take place, our Saviour specifies more particularly the time, and says, Mark xiv. 72. "Verily I say unto thee, that this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice." Pilkington supposes, that the words, the cock shall not crow before thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me, should be taken literally, signifying that the cock should not crow at all before thou shalt thrice deny me; and he concludes, there is a double signification attached to these separate predictions, and a double accomplishment of them. He argues, according to

Jerusalem.

MATT. XXVI. part of ver. 69, 70.

69 and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus

70 But he denied

St. John's Gospel, that these words were primarily fulfilled by
St. Peter, when he was admitted into the palace. The first de-
nial was made to the damsel who kept the door, and had per-
mitted him to enter. It is very natural to imagine that a cla-
mour would be raised against Peter, upon her accusation; as
the people would conclude that the damsel who kept the door,
and let him in, must have good reason for her suspicion: and
accordingly St. John tells us, that the servants who were warm-
ing themselves at the fire with Peter, again questioned him
about this matter, and that he denied being a disciple of Christ
the second time. Immediately upon, or soon after this, Mal-
chus's kinsman recollected seeing Peter in the garden with
Jesus, and charged him therewith; but Peter denied it a third
time. And St. John observes, that upon this immediately the
cock crew.
And thus it appears how those words of our Saviour
were verified, "Before the cock crow (at all) thou shalt deny
me thrice."

St. John having thus shewn the accomplishment of these words of our Lord, takes no notice of any other of Peter's denials, but of these three only, which were made at the fire, whereas the other Evangelists take notice of several denials, made after these; and so shew us the propriety of that other expression, "Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice." They consider the several particular denials at the fire made at the same time, and in the same place, only as one general denial: and so St. Mark tells us, that, after Peter had denied at the fire, and was gone out into the porch, the cock crew the first time; and this appears to be the same crowing which St. John speaks of, as immediately succeeding Peter's three several denials of his Master there.

The second general denial was made in the porch. This evidently appears from the accounts both of St. Matthew and St. Mark. And, from what is related, we must conclude, that the denial there was not single, but that many then charged him together (as they had done before, and as we may easily imagine they would do, in such a riotous assembly), and that he again there denied to them all. For St. Luke tells us, that a man charged him, and said, "Thou art one of them;" and he replied, and said, "Man, I am not." St. Mark, that he denied what a maid was insinuating, "that he was one of them:" and St. Matthew, that "he denied with an oath, I do not know the man," upon a maid's affirming that he was with Jesus of Nazareth.

The place of the third general denial is not specified, any farther than that it was in the same room or court where Jesus was, who "turned and looked upon Peter." The time of it is said, by St. Mark, to have been a little after the second (μɛrà μupòv). St. Matthew makes use of the same expression; and St. Luke particularly mentions, that it was "about the space of one hour after." This also appears to have been a general accusation, and so must have been a general denial; for though St. Luke only mentions one man's charging Peter at this time, yet St. Matthew and St. Mark tell us, that they that stood by charged him with being a Galilean, and a disciple of Christ, and that in such a pressing manner, that he began to curse and to swear he did not know the man." And upon this St. Mark tells us, that "the cock crew a second time:" before which Peter had

Jerusalem.

Mt.xxvi.71.

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After Midnight-Peter's second Denial of Christ, at the
Porch of the Palace of the High Priest.

MATT. XXVI. 71, 72. MARK xiv. 69. part of ver. 70.
LUKE Xxii. 58.

And when he was gone out into the porch,

Lu. xxii.58. after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art
And Peter said, Man, I am not.

one of them.

Mt. xxvi.71. And another maid saw him,

Mar. xiv.69. and began to say to them that stood by,

Mt. xxvi.71. This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth;
Mar.xiv.69. This is one of them.

Mt. xxvi.72.

Lu.xxii.59.

And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the

man.

MATT. XXVI. part of ver. 71.

71 -and said unto them that were there—

MARK XIV. part of ver. 69, 70.

69 And a maid saw him again

70 And he denied it again.

SECTION VII.

Friday, the Day of the Crucifixion-Time about three in
the Morning. Peter's third Denial of Christ, in the
Room where Christ was waiting among the Soldiers till
the Dawn of Day.

MATT. XXVI. 73-75.

MARK XIV. 70-72.
59-62.

LUKE XXII.

And about the space of one hour after, another confidenied" Christ at three several times, and in three several places;" and so had remarkably fulfilled the second signification of the prediction, "Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice."

If it shall appear that there is nothing forced or misrepre-
sented in the relation of this matter; then it must be allowed
that the evangelical accounts are so far from being contradic-
tory or inconsistent, that they greatly illustrate each other, and
shew the true meaning, and the full accomplishment, of what
our Saviour foretold with respect to this event (e.)

(a) Bava Kama, c. vii. Hal. ult. Dwipa bwana pbuɔɔ¬n pbr
ap Lightfoot, vol. ii. p. 262. fol. edit. (b) Quænam hora venit præfec-
tus Templi? Resp. non semper tempus definitum observat y

E nonnunquam venit tempore gallicinii, vel circa.
(c) Schoetgen. Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 232, 233. (d) Vide Lightfoot, on
John xiii. 38. Works, vol. ii. folio edit. Dr. Bright's. (e) Pilkington,
Notes to the Evangelical History, p. 55.

Jerusalem.

Lu. xxii. 60.

dently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was Jerusalem. with him, for he is a Galilean".

And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest.

Mar.xiv.70. And they that stood by, said again to Peter,

Mt.xxvi.73. Surely thou also art one of them,

Mar. xiv.70. for thou art a Galilean: and thy speech agreeth thereto,
Mt.xxvi.73. for thy speech bewrayeth thee.

74. Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know
not the man ;

Mar.xiv.71. I know not this man of whom ye speak.

Lu. xxii. 60. And immediately while he yet spake, the cock crew;
Mar.xiv.72. the second time the cock crew.

Lu. xxii. 61.

And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter; and
Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how that he had
said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me
thrice.

Mar.xiv.72. Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.
And when he thought thereon, he wept;

Mt.xxvi.75. he went out and wept bitterly.

MATT. XXVI. part of ver. 73, 74, 75.

73 And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter

74-And immediately the cock crew

75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto
him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.-
MARK XIV. part of ver. 70, 71, 72.

70 And a little after-Surely thou art one of them-
71 But be began to curse and to swear-

72-And Peter called to mind the word which Jesus said
unto him-

9 Pfeiffer, in the last treatise of his Dubia Vexata, endeavours to prove that the common dialect, both of Galilee and Judea, was not Hebrew, but Syro-Chaldaic, or Aramaic, mixed with Greek, and that they differed only in accent and pronunciation. The learned men, of both countries, understood and conversed in pure Hebrew. The Galilean dialect consisted in a corrupt and confused pronunciation of the common Syro-Chaldaic; and this dialect was the vernacular language of the Apostle.

According to Lightfoot, y for x (which change indeed is frequent in the Aramaic dialect, and by no means peculiar to the Galilean,) for a, n for, and they also frequently changed the gutturals. Among other instances of the effects of these changes, he mentions the following amusing circumstance:-A certain woman intended to say to the judge, My Lord, I had a picture, which they stole, and it was so great, that if you had been placed in it, your feet would not have touched the ground. But her words, from the dialect she used, admitted this interpretation-Sir Slave, I had a beam, and they stole thee away; and it was so great, that if they had hung thee on it, thy feet. would not have touched the ground.

Schoetgen (a), among others, mentions, Brescith Rabba, sect. xxvi. fol. 26. 3. *** pring xbbaa In Galilæa serpentem, qui alias n dicitur, vocant * ut pro пsurpat 8.

Horne and Pfeiffer, as well as the two last mentioned authori ties, have collected similar instances.

(a) Schoetgen, vol. i. p. 235.

Mark xv. 1.

SECTION VIII.

Christ is taken before the Sanhedrim, and condemned.
MATT. xxvii. 1. MARK XV. part of ver. 1. LUKE Xxii. 66.

to the end.

And straightway in the morning,

Lu.xxii. 66, as soon as it was day,

Mark xv. 1. the Chief Priests held a consultation with the elders
Mat.xxvii.1. of the people,

Mark xv. 1. and the Scribes, and the whole council,

Lu. xxii.66.

Mat.xxvii.1. [and] took counsel against Jesus to put him to death.
And they led him into their council,
67. saying, Art thou the Christ? tell us.
them, If I tell you, you will not believe.

68.

69.

70.

71.

Mat.xxvii.3.

4.

5.

And he said unto

And if I also ask you, you will not answer me, nor let

me go.

Hereafter shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of
the power of God.

Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God?
And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.

And they said, What need we any further witness? for
we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.

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1 When the morning was come, all the Chief Priests and elders

LUKE Xxii. part of ver. 66.

66 the elders of the people, and the Chief Priests, and the Scribes came together

SECTION IX.

Judas declares the Innocence of Christ".

MATT. xxvii. 3-10.

Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the Chief Priests and elders,

Saying, I have sinned, in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that.

And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself".

10 I am induced to place this section here, because it does not appear that the Sanhedrim returned to their council chamber in the temple after our Lord had been condemned by Pilate, and we must therefore refer the repentance of Judas to his condemnation by the Sanhedrim in the temple.

11 The account of the death of Judas is attended with some difficulty. The manner in which Weston reconciles St. Matthew and St. Luke, seems to be the most preferable. St. Matthew says, άnnycaro, "he hanged himself," and St. Luke that he πρηvǹs yevóμɛvoç, falling headlong, as we have translated it,

Jerusalem.

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