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batred against the Magyar, but the Habsburgs | abolishing all his reforms in Hungary. He signed had ever turned their eyes only to the Occident, it, strangely enough, in Magyar, the very language and their ambition had always been to retain for he had proscribed, but the decree, far from beAustria her rank as a Western power. All in- ing an avowal of his wrongs, was merely an act terests and exigencies, not subservient to this of extreme weakness. their great aim, were set aside and overcome. Soon after this fatal acknowledgment of his Thus the immense Empire gradually crystalli- error, which only increased the discontent prezed around the small hereditary provinces in vailing in Hungary, the French revolution broke Germany; Italian, Bohemian, and Slave were out and its disastrous consequences threatened equally sacrificed to these German tendencies, once more the very existence of the House of and the whole policy of Austria reduced itself Austria; and once more did the Magyars show to her resistance of all development of constitu- their loyalty and gallantry; they granted willingtional rights at home and the claims of nation- ly and joyfully horses, money and men, all that ality abroad.

was asked, begging in return only that their chilPrompted by such motives, she deprived the dren might be allowed to fight under their own Magyars, one by one, of their high privileges, re- officers. Nobly, most nobly, did the brave Husgardless of all the solemn promises made by every sars fight and again the Magyar helped to save Emperor before his election as king of Hungary the Austrian Empire. But not Republics alone and in spite of the humble prayers and urgent re- are ungrateful. Never was country worse remonstranees of the oppressed race. A German warded than Hungary, for all the sacrifices Governor took the place of their self-chosen she had made for the cause of Europe and of Palatin, military and civil offices were given to Austria. The moment her treasures and arstrangers, foreign troops were sent into their mies were no longer needed, her services were land and quartered on nobleman and priest, and forgotten and only her former resistance reeven their faith, that of Calvin, was not spared membered. Again were Imperial Commissaby their catholic masters.

ries sent to govern the kingdom, again was the And still the Magyars, fretting and sighing un- Magyar language proscribed, their national Diet der the hard yoke, were a noble and a loyal abolished and their most sacred rights disregardrace; for when the great Frederick drove Maria ed. How their proud, independent spirit could Theresa from all her hereditary states, Hungary so long brook such injustice and tyranny would became the asylum of the fugitive Empress, who, be almost inexplicable but for the skill, firmness the royal infant in her arms, appeared in the and conciliatory spirit of the Viceroy or Palatin midst of the assembled nobles to implore their Joseph, one of the Austrian Archdukes, and the assistance for their king. And they drew their immense superiority of Austria as one of the swords and crowding round their august guest Great Powers of Europe. they cried : Moriamur pro rege nostro! Their But the patience of the Magyars was at last devotion and their bravery saved the Austrian exhausted; their national pride, so long supmonarchy and they were told that the slave who pressed, at last awoke and after aspiring for cenhad saved his master's life was free!

turies with a noble ambition to the liberty they But soon both their loyalty and their services had enjoyed in days long gone by, they broke were forgotten, when Joseph II. sacrificed all the chains with which force and cunning, unsurthat was left of freedom and independence in the passed in modern times, had so long fettered land of the Magyar to his fanciful plans of mak- them. They now showed that they had not in ing Austria one great homogeneous monarchy. vain obtained the name of the Englishmen of The kingdom was treated like a conquered pro- the East. Their Magnates, members of the vince, royal commissaries exercised unlimited higher nobility and rarely seen without their retipowers, the last privileges were taken from cities nue of several hundred men, or maintaining, like and communities and a simple imperial edict the Esterhazy, whole regiments at their own exabolished with one stroke all the rights and im- pense, formed an Upper Chamber, closely remunities of the Magyar nobles ! The adminis- sembling the House of Lords, whilst their Electration of justice was reorganized after German tive Chamber was in every respect a faithful copy models, the Magyar language was prohibited of the Lower House of England. Nor was the and the German imposed as the tongue of him division of the kingdom into counties wanting, who thus conquered Hungary in times of undis- with their system of representation and indepenturbed peace. The Magyars trembled with in-dent administration; they had their clubs under dignation at such unmerited insult, but before the name of casinos, the large balconies of their they could rise to avenge their grievously offen- massive houses were their hustings and public ded race, Joseph, unhappy, sick and doubting banquets gave ample opportunity for political himself, signed, with trembling hand, a decree' oratory. Their Magnates followed the example of their English brethren even in the pride they The latin Hungary” was abolished, and with took in placing themselves at the head of every the deliverance from the German yoke, the “ •Magpolitical movement, pretending to be or being re- yar Orszag” (the kingdom of the Magyar), apally ready to sacrifice their own privileges when- parently reduced to decrepitude, rose young and ever the good of the Commonwealth should re- strong, inspired by ardent love of liberty, to take quire it; and the younger sons would serve as once more its place among the kingdoms of Eusecretaries in the Diet, or during vacations, can- rope. At the head of the movement, and now vass the country and thus enter the Lower the soul and the director of the new government, House.

was a man who, like his race, had even in serviWhen therefore the opportunity came, they tude cherished lofty aspirations, and in silence were not found unprepared and wanting, as their prepared himself for the great work carved out German brethren, in political education, whilst for him by History. Not more than twelve years the resuscitation of their national feelings raised ago Kossuth was a poor attorney in the employtheir patriotism to the height of almost sacred ment of several deputies, when some magnates enthusiasm. Their scholars had studied the his- of the liberal party discovered his superior talents tory of their race and taught it in lecture-room and untiring activity. At their instigation he unand public square, to the surprise and admira- dertook to publish a journal, containing reports of tion of their fellow-citizens; eloquent patriots the Sessions of their Diet, which, to avoid the had inspired the people with the glorious deeds severe laws against the printing of such docuof their ancestors and the consciousness of their ments, were lithographed and thus sent to every own rights and the name of Magyar had become county in the kingdom. The bold and daring once more an honor among them.

enterprise met with unexpected success, but the These were the days when the wave of revo- Austrian government, justly afraid of its influlutions, passing over the continent, reached Vi-ence on a nation like the Magyar, found means enna and roused it from its apparently happy to have the journalconfiscated. Nothing daunted, slumbers. But to the surprise of all Europe, it Kossuth continued it by employing a number of was here that the most fearful explosions follow- copyists and sending it out in written copies ! ed each other in most rapid succession. One day After the adjournment of the National Diet he saw the work of centuries fall to pieces and the travelled through the country to see with his own father of European politics, Prince Metternich, eyes and teach with his own lips; but he was a fugitive and an exile. Another day and the soon arrested for one of his public speeches, kept liberal cabinet of Ficquelmont fell with equal in prison for nearly three years without ever being rapidity and disgrace; a third revolution drove brought before a judge and almost accidentally the weak Emperor himself out of " his belov- liberated by a general amnesty. Having thus beed city.” A Diet, elected by universal suffrage, come a martyr of the popular cause he soon as a constituent body, took the affairs of the found himself in the Lower House and at the country in their hands and soon after, following head of the opposition. Thus qualified by a the example of the Parliament of St. Paul, en- slow and gradual, but thorough political educaacted executive measures.

tion, he rose with his country and when Hungary, The revolution of Vienna was, however, the in March, threw off the yoke of the German, first of those movements which were not so much Kossuth, by the will of the people, seized the undertaken for the sake of political reforms, but supreme power and displayed an energy and manifested the characteristic of the revolutions wisdom, fully equal to the emergency and his of 1818, by demanding political emancipation lofty position. His eloquence, by friend and foe only for the sake of the final independence of spoken of with admiration, and his ardent, unthe different nationalities. Magyar-students, it suspected patriotism won him the hearts of his is said, had been the leaders of this revolution, countrymen, and, by birth, education and characand at the first news of their success, the second ter, the true representative of the Magyar race, Chamber of Hungary, with the concurrence of he soon rose to such power that, to apply the the Upper House, sent an address to the Empe- fatal test of our day, he could issue two hundred ror, demanding a Magyar-Cabinet, responsible millions of florins in paper money and see the to their own Diet, a national guard and universal Diet, unasked, impose capital punishment on all representation, without distinction of rank or who would obey the Emperor's decree and refuse property. One thousand Magyar noblemen in to take these notes ! their brilliant national costume ascended the Dan- But, strange fate! hardly had Hungary freed ube and presented this petition to the Emperor. herself from Austria and begun to prepare for It was granted, for at that moment there was on the struggle with that power, when an enemy the whole continent no government that could arose within her own limits, small in number, have refused.

weak in appearance, and strong only in the same

feeling that nerved the Magyar, in ardent patriot- times of Rome, Europe has known pone more ism. The cry of nationality had found an echo powerful aud more gigantic. even in the farthest parts of Europe, and pene- In June the struggle began and war was detrated to the most remote branches of the Scla- clared between Magyar and Slave. The last atvonic family. And when Hungary was Hungary tempt on the part of Austria to conciliate those no longer, but once more the Land of the Mag- whom she was then still disposed to call her subyar, there rose the children of the soil and asked : jects failed; the proud Magyar refused to yield in What have we in common with the Hun? add- anything to the demands of the Sclavonians, and ing in their barbarous Latin, nolumus magyari- the Croats, following the example of the races sari! Should the Magyar be allowed to appro- around them, were determined to recover their priate to himself the harvest he had sown with nationality or to die in the attempt. When the the aid of other nations, and which all had la- crisis really came the courtiers and politicians of bored to ripen? Should he, without drawing his Vienna were not slow in seeing the advantage sword, be allowed to claim alone the fruits of they might derive from it for their own cause. long peace, as if the Croat had not fought by his It was then that they first gave up the West and side with equal bravery against the Mongol, the turned their eyes to the East, to the Sclavonic Tartar and the Turk? They pleaded, not without race; applying the old maxim of divide et imjustice, that they had never been serfs of the Mag- pera they declared the Magyars“ rebellious reyar but an “ annexed” kingdom with their own publicans” and sanctioned the attempt of the Diet and independent administration and bearing Croats the more readily as they found at their to Hungary the same relation that Hungary bore head a loyal subject and a highly distinguished to Austria, that of regnum in regno. We have officer of the army. Baron Joseph de Jellachich, always, they said, complained of the tyranny of a Slave by birth, had manifested from early youth our stronger brother, the Magyar, even when we a warm sympathy for the interests of his opyet obeyed a common master, but what will be- pressed brethren, and when his signal services in come of us when, deprived of the protection of Italy were to be rewarded he claimed as his only our father, we shall be left to his unrestrained favor a place among his fellow Croats. This was rule ? Let the Magyar resuscitate his own race, granted and he lived for years as one of the Coloreassume his language and enjoy once more his nels commanding on the armed frontier (against national independence, but let him not deprive us Turkey) in their midst, honored and loved as a of the same rights he is so eagerly claiming for father. It is here that by his paternal care, his himself!

rational endeavors to enlighten his race and imIt is certainly strange that the Magyar, then prove their condition, and by his personal kindwhom there is none more anxious for liberty and ness, he gained that popularity which afterwards proud of independence, should attempt to impose made him in all but name the sovereign of a the same yoke on the Croat which he bore so great people. He spoke to them in their own impatiently, and while he resists to his utmost language, the forbidden Illyrian, for, said he, “it is the attempts of Austria to recover her rebellious the tongue my mother spoke and I am proud of province, speak of Croatia as trying under favor being able to speak it and to speak it to you !" of the general revolutionary crisis to rise with He lived with them and fought with them; standimpunity against the Hungarian Monarchy! The ing alone in the world, they were his only friends Magyars—for Hungarians there are no longer and his children. have but one excuse: they pretend that Croatia And when they rose to shake off the yoke of dreams of the famous Panslavism and is anxious Magyar laws and Magyar language, they held a to aid in establishing the gigantic Slave Empire great Diet in their city of Agram, and, appealing to which we have referred. Proud of having to all the members of their large and powerful once saved European Christianity from the Mos- family, they declared themselves, after a thousand lems they now are prouder still of what they be- years' oppression, once more a free and indepenlieve their lofty and providential destination : to dent nation. Their poet, Gaj, had prepared their be a bulwark against the encroaching influence minds by his erudite works on their language and of Panslavism. They delight in the thought that history, and this race of shepherds and slaves Russia will march her forty millions of Slaves who but ten years before were without schools against them, for their gallantry is one that is and written laws, now, as by magic, and under flattered by the power of their enemy, and, firmly the inspiration of highly-wrought patriotism, probelieving that the triumph of Magyarism would be duced philologists, scholars, poets and publicists, the triumph of reason, intelligence aud liberty, they and an irresistible enthusiasm filled the minds of hesitate not to oppose themselves, a race of a few all with visions of the future greatness of a noble millions and without any affinity to other nations race. Not disdaining to learn even from their of the earth, to an Empire than which, since the enemies they followed the example of the haughty Magyar in every measure calculated to raise a faithful subject of the House of Habsburg and and strengthen this feeling, and perhaps more an enemy of all the enemies of Austria, but above fortunate even than their foes they elected Jella- all

, of the revolutionary Magyars. What he dechich their Ban and Sovereign. It was in the manded was a One United Austria, giving equal large palace of the Congregation, as their Par- rights to all nationalities which form part of the liament is called, that their wise elders and the great monarchy. The different races were to be Greek and Catholic bishops, in their gorgeous represented in a common Parliament at Vienna, robes, were seated on one of three oblong tables, where, of course, the Sclavonic races would, raised on a low platform, whilst the other two owing to their numerical strength, have an overwere occupied by the members at large, surround-whelming majority. In fact, therefore, Austria ed by a graceful balustrade, below which stood would cease to be German, and by a constituthe literati or young men who had passed the tional majority become Sclavonic. necessary examinations, all admitted to witness This the Ban calls the good cause of Austria, the meeting, but to vote only when of noble and with this war-cry a powerful army left Croabirth. Their picturesque costume was much tia, crossed the Drave, and unfolding the impeenhanced by the richly ornamented arms with rial banner, summoned the Magyar fortress Eswhich every member was amply provided, and segg to surrender to those who came “under the their whole bearing presented a strange but at- venerated authority of the Emperor, their fatractive mixture of the Orient and the West. ther.” Thus opened the war between Magyar Long were their debates and stormy, and many and Croat and Magyar and Austrian, a fearful an eye flashed with anger and spoke of future civil war, with all the horrors to be expected bloodshed; many a sword was half-drawn, and from the hatred of races, the fury of serfs but the storm under which the impassionate Assem- recently franchised, from political and religious bly moved to and fro, seemed about to break out fanaticism, and the ferocity of semi-barbarous with perfect fury, when one of the white-haired populations. bishops rose and with a low, trembling voice The Magyars seem to be fully aware of their spoke a few words in Illyrian, of which the for- dangerous position; suspected by Germany, hated eigner would have understood but the last, the by the Slaves, isolated among the nations of the name of Jellachich. Zivio! Zivio! was heard earth, they were left alone, as they say, to resist from old and young, from priest and nobleman, this conspiracy of monarchs and races against and shouts interminable rent the air, and from the them. In Vienna they were ungratefully demidst of the Peers there rose a man of small, nounced as an undisciplined and rebellious naslender stature, and his clear commanding eye, tion ; in the North armed bands of Slaves from in calm, firm steadiness, wandered from face to Bohemia and Moravia tried to join their Southface. An instant, all were quiet as if awed by ern brethren in Croatia where Jellachich had alhis glance, but then broke forth such bursts of ready attacked them with a powerful army, and applause and enthusiasm, as only the Orient in the East ssia threatened with her two hunknows to conjure up. He moved not; not a dred thousand men in arms, ready to crush every feature changed. It was not pride-much less movement in favor of republicanism. If Heaven indifference : he felt the ovation and when he itself surveys with pleasure a brave heart strugbegan to speak, his voice was thick as with deep gling with the storms of fate, what a glorious emotion.

Few were his words and mild his sight must not a nation be, struggling for the saspeech, but it was the gentle evening-breeze that cred cause of liberty against nearly all Europe ! fans the flames till they rise to the very heavens. When the news of Jellachich's invasion reach

That day Jellachich was elected Ban of Croa- ed Pesth, Kossuth caused himself to be carried, tia, and representatives came from distant re- sick and suffering, to the Diet; supported by two gions—from Serbia, Illyria, and even from the men, pale and exhausted, he made, as he then northern Sclavonic provinces, and hailed their thought, his last appeal to the Assembly.great chief. Bishops of the two great churches He spoke words of fire, now appealing to the officiated, with all the pomp of the East, at his sacred memory of their ancient forefathers, now solemn installation, and from Vienna came the showing how their cause was the cause of libnews that the Ban had been appointed the Em-erty for all Europe ; he electrified the Assembly, peror's Lieutenant for Hungary! Thus he who and raised the energetic patriotism of the excibut a year before had been a poor Colonel in a table Magyar to a fanaticism that centuries will far-off province, found himself suddenly gover- not be able to allay again. The scene was one eign of an independent kingdom and command- of unsurpassed grandeur, such as the annals of er-in-chief of all the Austrian troops and for- history have but rarely to record. Borne on the tresses in Hungary. He hesitated not to declare shoulders of some of his friends, he then went himself openly in favor of the Emperor's cause, to the fortifications, where the Deputies themselves, spade in hand, repaired the walls of the terranean, and well consider that there is waitcity, or broke up the pavement to raise barri- ing for their downfall a powerful and uncorrupted cades, while the women on the flat roofs of their race, forming one tenth part of all mankind and houses heated pitch and oil to receive the inva- united by the sacred tie of common blood and the ding enemy. The Parliament in the meantime strong bond of one common language-a race, declared itself permanent; a Committee of Pub- warlike and victorious, represented even now in lic Safety was appointed; Kossuth was chosen the armies of Europe by their only successful Imperator with unlimited power, and every man Generals—Radetzky, Windischgraetz and Jellaable to bear arms, was ordered forthwith to join chich! the army which thus included the regular hussar, the national guard, and the peasant with his national weapon, the scythe.

In attempting to present here a few glimpses It is sad that this bright page in the history of at Europe in 1848, we have been led to choose 80 noble a race, should have been stained with a the distant and unknown Slave nation as the first deed that no excitement and no passion can ex- of our series, because we believe this movement cuse. Like General Bréa in Paris, Prince Lich- to be the only one likely to have permanent efnowsky in Frankfurth, and Count Latour in Vi- fects on the state of things in Europe. Not that enna, was it in Pesth also an old tried soldier the revolutions which have disturbed more or less who fell ingloriously in an inglorious cause. the peace of almost every nation will remain

The Emperor, relying on the rapid march of without their momentous consequences. The the Ban of Croatia and the apparent hesitation providence of God does not ordain such fearful of the Magyars entirely to throw off their allegi- commotions without a wise pnrpose, although ance to Austria, sent Count Lamberg as Com- centuries may pass before it becomes manifest missioner to make a last attempt at reconcilia- to our short-sighted minds. Even were there no tion. For this purpose, the venerable old Gen- other benefit to be derived from such a crisis, it eral left Pesth to cross the Danube, when, on the must have enlarged and strengthened those counbridge, an infuriated mob recognized his brilliant tries by elevating all the members of the same uniform in an humble hackney-coach, dragged state to the consciousness of their digņity as citihim out and butchered him in a manner which zens, and by exciting in all men of the same of itself disgraced the whole nation. Soon blood a warmer love of their common race and after, a Count Zichy, a Magyar-magnate and country. But we apprehend that the wishes of cousin to the Princess Metternich, was detected those who, from a pure, but abstract love of freein carrying on a secret correspondence with the dom, hoped for the establishment of republics in Croats and after a summary trial, hung as a trai- Europe, will be doomed to disappointment. We tor.

have happened of late to meet more than one of There was great and well-founded indignation those in whose hands had been the government of at Vienna. Jellachich was ordered immediately European countries for long years; and from pruto dissolve the Magyar Díet, and to reduce the dent Guizot, whom no fault of his own, but solely country by fire and sword to obedience; but ere the selfish policy and reluctant half-confidence of he could march to execute this order, the last Louis Philippe, caused to fall, to the newly risen revolution broke out in Vienna, and he hastened Kossuth with his ardent enthusiasm for liberty, thither to aid his Emperor's cause, while the not one but was convinced that the establishment Magyars collected an army to assist the Repub- of republics at present, could not be hoped for

and should not be desired, that France would soon Vienna is fallen, and for the moment the cause return to monarchy, that Germany would never of the Slave is triumphant. At the side of West- attempt a republic while Poland remained quiesern Europe we see an Eastern Europe rise, here- cent, and that Italy would but slightly change her tofore hardly known but as the formidable phan- political institutions by forming a federal union. tom of Panslavism, rarely as a friendly power. If however, the movement in favor of repubMillions of Slaves, not Russians, but almost all licanism be comparatively fruitless and produce opposed to them and mostly differing with them but few radical changes in the political aspect of in religion, are rising, coalescing and forming in- Europe, it is far otherwise with the question of stitutions which shall reconcile and combine the nationality. Austria has de facto become a Sclacultus of ancient laws and traditions of the coun- vonic Empire ; the Emperor has determined to try with the demands of modern civilization. reside hereafter in Prague among his three milLet the old races of the Continent beware! Let lions of Tchech-subjects, and a union of these them remember Rome and the Barbarians! Let Slaves with their brethren in Hungary, Serbia, them examine the questions now agitated on the Moldavia and Wallachia already preparing. banks of the Danube and the shores of the Medi- This change will, we fear, seriously affect the

lican party.

Vol. XV-2

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