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chain of our irregular affections at once.y tour amendment cannot be secured without the grace of God, the prayers of good men. the help of the brethren, and our own sincere repentance, and constant care. It is a good thing not to fin at all; it is also good, having linned, to repent; as it is best to have health alway's but i: is a good thing to rec: ver from a dilemper. To God be glory and domimon forever and ever. Amen.




Jesus Christ, John the Baptist, JAMES THE JUST,




the Baptist, and Jamès the Jusi, vindicated, SINCE

INCE we meet with several important testimonies in Josephus, the

Jewish historian concerning John the Baptist, the forerunner of JEsus of Nazareth, concerning Jesus of Nazareth himself, and concern. ing JAMES the Just, the brother of Jesus of Nazareth ; and since the principal testimony, which is that concerning of Jesus of 'Nazareth him. Self, hasot late been greatly questioned by many, and rejected by some of the learned as spurious, it will be fit for me, who have ever declared my firm belief that these testimonies were genuine, to set down fairly some of the original evidence, and citations, I have met with in the first fifteen centuries concerning them, and then to make proper observations upon that evidence, for the reader's more compleie satisfaction

But before I produce the citations themselves out of Josephus, give me leave to prepare the reader's attention, by setting down the sentiments or perhaps the most learned person, and the most competent Hidge that ever was, as to the authority of Josephus, I mean of Joseph Scaliger in the Prolegomena to his book De Emendatione Temporum, p. 17. Josephus is the most diligent and the greatest lover of truth of all writers ; nor are we afraid to affirm of him, that it is more safe to believe him, not only as to the affairs of the Jews, but also as to those that are foreign to them, than all the Greek and Latin writers, and this, because his fidelity and his compass of learning are every where conspicuous.'' The ancient CITATIONS of the TESTIMONIES of JOSEPHUS,

from his own time till the end of the fifieen'h century. About A.D. 110. Tacit. Annal. lib. xv. cap. 44-Nero, in order to stifle the rumor, [as if he himself had set Rome on fire] ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar, Christians : these he punished exquisitely. The ausbor of this name was Christ, who, in the reign of Ziberius, was brought to punishmeni by Pontius Pilate the procurator.

About A. D. 147. Just. Mart. Dialog. cum Trypho. p230-Yo! (Jews] knew that Jesus was risen from the dead, and afcended into heaven, as the prophecies did foretel was to happen.

About A. D. 230. Origen. Comment. in Matth. p. 234.–This Jumes was of fo thining a character among the people, on account of his righteousness, that Flavius Josephus, when, in his twentieth book ct 1h. Vol. III.


Jewish antiquities, he had a mind to let down what was the cause why The people suffered such iniseries uill the very holy house was demolith ed, he said, that these things befel them by the anger of God, on ac. count of what thy had dared to do to lames the brother of Jesus, who was called Chrift: And wonderful it is that while he did not receive Jelus for Christ, he did nevertireless bear witness that James was so righteous a man. Fc fayş farther, that thie people thought that they flittered these things for the lake of James.

About #. D. 250. Contr. Cel. lib. i. 35, 36.-! would-fay to Celsus, who personates a Jew, that adınitted of John the Baptist, and how he baptized Jefus, that one who lived but a litle while after John and Jelus, wrote, how that Joha was a baptizer unto the remillion of fins : For Jofephus testifies in the eighteenth book of Jewin anriquities, that John was the Baptist and that he promised purification to those that were baptized. The faue Josephus also, although he did not believe in Jesus as Christ, when he was enquiring after the cause of the deStruction of Jerusalem, and of the demolition of the temple, and ought to have said, that their inachinations against Jesus were the caute of those miseries coming on the people, because they had tain that Christ, who was foretold by the prophets, he, though as it were unwillingly, and yet as one not remote from the truth, says, “ There miseries befel the Jews by way of revenge for James the just, who was the brother of Jesus, that was called Christ, because thy had llain him who was a molt righteous perfon,'. Now this James was he whom that genuine disciple of Jesus, Paill, faid he had leca as the Lord's broiber; [Gal.i. 19.] which relation implies not so much nearnets of blood, or the famenefs of education, as it dues tiic agreement of manners and preaching. If therefore he says the defolation of Jerusalem befel the Jews for the sake of James, with low much greater reaíon night he have said, that it happened for the sake of Jesus? &c.

About A. D. 24 Euseb. Demonftr. Evan. lib. iii. p. 124,-Certainly the attestation of those I have already produced concerning our Sav. jour may be sulācient. However, it may not be amiss it over and above, we make use of Josephus the Jew for a farther witnefs who, in the eighteenth book of his antiquities, when he was writing the history of what happened under Pilate, makes mention of our Saviour in thele words: "Now there was about this time, Jesus, a wife inan, if it be lawsill to call him a man, for he was a duer of wonderful works, a teachcr of lich men as had a veneration for truth; he drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Genules: He was the Chrift. And when Pilate, at the fuggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at fuit did not for. fake him, for le appeared into thein alive again the third day, as the divine prophets hud spoken of these, and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; whence the tribe of Christians, so named froin him, are not extinct at this day.” If therefore we have this historian's tcftinion y, that he not only brought over 10 himself the twelve apostles with the seventy difciples, but many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles also, he must manifestly have liad somewhat is him extraordinary above the rest of mankind; for how otherwise could he draw over so many of the Jews, and of the Gentiles, unless he performed admirable and amazing works, and used a meinod of teaching that was !!ct common? Moreover, die scripture of the Acts of the Apoftles: bears witness, that there were many ten thousands of Jews, who were perfuaded, that he was the Christ of God, who was foretold by the proplets [acts xxi. 20.]

Åbout A. D 330. Hift. Ecclef. lib. i. cap 11.–Now the divine seriaruire. f the gospels makes mention of John the Baptist, as having his head cut off by the younger lierod. Josephus also concurs in this history, ind makes mention of Ilerodias by raine, as the wife of his brother,


whom Herod had married, upon divorcing his foriner lawful wife. She was the daughter of Aretas, king of the Petrean Arabians; and .which Herodias he had parted from her husband while he was alive's On which account also, when he had flain Jolin, he made war with Aretas, [Aretas made war with himn] because his daughter had been used dishonorably: In which war, when it came to a battle, he lays, that all Herod s army was destroyed, and that lie fuffered this because of his wicked contrivance against John. Moreover the same Josephus, by acknowledging John to have been a moft righteous man, and the Baptist, conspires in his teftimony with what is a ritten in the gospels. He also relates, that Herod lost his kingdoin for the fake of the same Herodias, together with whom he was himself condemned to be banimed to Vien na, a city of Gaul And this is his account in the eighteenth book of the antiquities, where he writes this 'of John verbarim : * Some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's army came from God, and that very justly, asa punishment for what he did against John that was called the Baptist, for Herod flew him, who was a good man, and one that coinnanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousnels towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism for that by this means the walling (with water] would appear acceptable to him, when they made use of it, not in order to the putting away (or the remislion of some fins [only] but for the purification of the body, fuppofing still that the fou were thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness Now when (many) others came in crowds about hin, for they were greatly delighteú in hearing his words, Herod was afraid that this so great power of perfuading men might tend to some fedition or other, for they seemed to be dil posed to do every thing he shouid advise them to, so he supposed it better to prevent any attempt for a niutation from him, by cutting him off, that after such mutation should be brought about, and the public should suffer, to repent [of such negligence.] Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle 1 before mentioned, and was there put to death --Wlien Jose phus had said this of Tolm, he makes mention also of our Saviourin the Jame history, after this manner: "Now there was about this time, one Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure; he drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles : also he was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first, did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold, these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And still the tribe of Christians, fonamed from him, are not extinct at this day.” And lince this writer, fprung from the Hebrews themselves, hath delivered these things above in his own work, concerning John the Baptist and our Saviour, what room is there for any farther evasion ? &c.

Now James was fo wonderful a person, and was so celebrated by all others for righteousness, that the judicious. Jews thought this to have been that occasion of that liege of Jerusalem, which came on presently after his martyrdom, and that it befel them for no other realon, than that impions fact they were guilty of against hini Josephus therefore did not refuse to attest thereto in writing by the words following : s. These mileries befel the Jews by way of revenge for James the Just, who was the brother of Jefus that was called Christ, on this account that they had flain him who was a moft righteous perfon."

The fame Josep!uus declares the manner of his death in the twentieth book of the antiquities, in these words : « Cesar sent Albinus into Judea to be procurator, when he had heard that Feftus was dead. Now Ananus junior, who, as we faid had been admitted to the brighpriest!ood, was in his temper bold and daring in an extraordinary manner. He was also of the feet of the Sadducees, who are more favage in judgment than the other Jews, as we have already signified. Since therefore this was the character of Ananus, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority) because Festus was dead and Albinus was but upon the road ; fo he assembles the fanhedrin of judges, and brings before them James, the brother of Je. fus who was called Christ

, and some others (of his companions) and when he had formed an accufation against them, as breakers of the law, be delivered them to be stoned : But as for those who seemed the moti equitable of the citizens, and those who were the most uneasy at the breach of the la" s, they disiked what was done. They also sent to the King [Agrippa ) defiring him to send to Ananus that he should act lo no more for that what he had already done could not be justified,” &c.

About A. D. 360. Ambrose or Hegessippus de Excid. Urb. Hierofolym. lib. i. cap. !2.-We have discovered that it was the opinion and belief of the Jews, as Josephus affirms, [ho is an author not to be rejected, when he writes against himself), that Herod loft his army, not by the deceit of men but by the an er of God, and that juftly, as an effect of revenge for what he did to John the Baptift, a just man, who had said to him, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wifé.

he Jews themselves also bear witness to Christ, as appears by Jofephus, the writer of their history, who says thus: That there was at that time a ise man, if, says he, it be lawful to have him called a man, a doer of wonderful works who appeared to his disciples after the third day i rom his dea h, alive again, according to the writings of the prophets, who foretold these and innumerable other miraculous events concerning him ; from whom began the congregation of Christians, and hath penetrated among all sorts of men, nor does there remain any nation in the Roman world, which continues strangers to his religion. If the Jews do not believe us, let them at least believe their own writers. Jofephus, whom they citeema great man, hath said this, and yet hath he spoken truth after such a manner, and so far was his mind wandered from the right way, that even he was not a believer, as to what he hir: self laid ; but thus he (pake in order to deliver historical truth, because he thought it not lawful for him to deceive. while he was no believer, because of the hardness of his heart and his perfidious intention. However it has no prejudice to the truth that he was not a believer but this adds more weight to his testimony,that while he was an unbeliever, and unwilling this should be true, he has not denied it to be so.

About A D. 400. Hieronym. de Vir. Illufir in Jofepbo.- Josephus, in the eighteenth book of antiquities, most expressly acknowledges that Christ was llain by the Pharisees, on account of the greatnels of his miracles; and that John the Baptist was truly a prophet; and that Jeru. falem was demolithed on accouni of the daughter of James the apoftle. Now he wrote concerning our Lord after this nianner : “ Ai the fame time there was Jesus, a wise man, it yet it be lawful to call him a man. for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of those who will. ingly receive the truth. He had many follow ers both of the Jews and of the Gentiles : He was believed to be Christ. And when by the envy of our principal men. Pilate nad condemned him to the cross, this, notwithfianding thofe who had loved him at first

, persevered, for lie appeared to them alive on the ihird day, as the oracles of the proplets had foretold many of these and other wonderful things concerned him: And the feet of Christians fu named from him, are not extinct at this day

About A D. 410. Ifidorus Pelufiota the scholar of Chryfoftom, lib. iv. cpift 25.There was one Jolephus, a Jew of the greatelt reputation, and one That Hasztalous of the law i one also that paraphrased the Old

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