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when he was going away, there had fallen, a great deal of rain, insomuch that his reservoirs were full of water, and so he was under no necessity of running away. After which, therefore, they made an irruption upon Antigonus's party, and few a great many of them, some in open battles, and some in private ambulh ; nor had they always tuccess in tbeir attempts, for fometimes they were beaten and ran away:

2. In the mean time Ventidius the Roman general, was sent out of Syria, to restrain the incúrlions of the Parthians, and after he had done that, he came into Judea, in pretence indeed to affist Joseph and his party, but in reality to get money of Antigonus; and when he had pitched his camp very near to Jerusalem, as soon as he had got money enough, he went away with the greatest part of his forces; yet still did he leave Silo with some part of them, lest if he had taken them all a. way his taking of bribes might have been too openly discov. éred. Now Antigonus hoped that the Parthians would come again to his assistance, and therefore cultivated a good understanding with Silo in the mean time, left any inter ruption should be given to his hopes.

3. Now by this time Herod had failed out of Italy, and was come to Prolemais ; and as foon as he had gotten together no small army of foreigners, and ot his own country men, he marched through Galilee againt Antigonus, wherein he was assisted by Ventidius and Silo, both whom * Dellius, a person fent by Antony, persuaded to bring Herod [into his kingdom.] Now Ventidius was at this time among the cities, and composing the disturbances which had happened by means of the Parthians, as was Silo in Judea corrupted by the bribes that Antigonus had given him; yet was not Herod himleif destitute of power, but the number of his forces increased eve. ry day as he went along, and all Galilee with few exceptions joined themselves to him. So he proposed to himself to set a. bout his most necessary enterprise, and that was Masada, in order to deliver his relations from the siege they endured. But Hill Joppa ftood in his way, and hindered his going thither ; for it was necessary to take that city first, which was in the ènemies hands, that when he thould go to Jerusalem, no tortress might be left in the enemies power behind him. Silo alfo willingly joined him, as having now a plauGble occasion of drawing off his forces (trom Jerusalem ;] and when the Jews pursued him and prefied upon him, (in his retreat,] Herod inade an excursion upon them with a Imall body of his men, and soon putihem to flight, and saved Silo when he was in diftreis.

4. Alier this Herod took Joppa, and then made halte to Malada to free his relations. Now as he was marching, many came in to him, induced some by their friendship to his father,

This Deilius is fantons, or rather infamous, in the history of Mark Antony, as Spanheim and Alduci lere note, from the coins from Plutarch aod Dio. VOL. III.

G

fome by the reputation he had already gained himself, and some in order to repay the benefits they had received from them both ; but ftill what engaged the greateft number on his Gide, was the hopes from him, when he should be established in his kingdom ; so that he had gotten together already an army hard to be conquered. But Antigonus laid an ambush for him as he marched out, in which he did little or no harm to his enemies. However, he easily recovered his relations again that were in Masada, as well as the fortress Ressa, and then marched to Jerusalem, where the soldiers that were with Silo joined themselves to his own, as did many out of the city, from a dread of his power.

5. Now when he had pitched his camp on the west (de of the city the guards that were there shot their arrows, and threw their darts at them, while others ran out in companies, and attacked those in the forefront; but Herod commanded proclamation to be made at the wall, that “ he was come for the good of the people and the preservation of the city, without any design to be revenged on his open enemies, but to grant oblivion to them, though they had been the most obftinate against him." Now the soldiers that were for Antigonus made a contrary clamour, and did neither permit any body to hear that proclamation, nor to change their party; fo Antigonus gave order to bis forces to beat the enemy from the walls; accordingly they foon threw their darts at them from the towers, and put them to flight.

6.' And here it was that Silo discovered he had taken bribes; for he fet many of the soldiers to clamour about their want of necessaries, and to require their pay, in order to buy them. felves tood, and to demand that he would lead them into places convenient for their winter quarters ; because all the parts about the city were laid waste by the means of Antigonus's army, which had taken all things away. By this he moved the army, and attempted to get them off the fiege ; but Herod went to the eaptains that were under Silo, and to a great many of the foldiers, and begged of them not to leave him who was sent thither by Cælar, and Antony, and the senate ; for that he would take care to have their wants supplied that very day. After the making of which entreaty, he went hastily in. to the country, and brought thither so great an abundance of necessaries, that he cut off all Silo's pretences ; and in order to provide that for the following days they should not want furplies, he sent to the people that were about Samaria (which city had joined itsell to him.) to bring corn, and wine, and oil and caule to Jericho. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushfs for these collectors of corn. This coinmand was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions. Yet was Herod not idle, buc took with him ten cohorts, five of them were Romans, and fiye were Jewish cohorts, together with some mercenary troops intermixed among them, and besides 'thole a few horsemen, and came to Jericho ; and when he came he found the city deserted, but that there were five hundred men, with their wives and children, who had taken pollellion of the tops of the mountains, these he took and dismisled chem, while the Romans fell upon the reft of the city, and plundered it, hav. ing found the houses full of all sorts of good things. So the king left a garrison at Jericho, and came back, and sent the Roman army into those cities which were come over to him, to take their winter quarters there, viz. into Judea, for Idumea,] and Galilee and Samaria. Antigonus also by bribes obtained of Silo to let a part of his army be received at Lydda, as a compliment to Antonius.

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CHAP. XVI.

1.

Herod takes Sepphoris, and subdues the Robbers that were in the Caves : He after that Avenges himself upon Macheras, as upon an Enemy of his, and goes to Antony, as he was befeging Samofata.

O the Romans lived in plenty of all things, and rested

from war. However, Herod did not lie at rest, but seized upon Idumca and kept it, with two thousand footmen, and four hundred horseinen ; and this he did by sending his brother Joseph thither, that no innovation might be made by Antigonus. He also removed his mother, and all his relations, who had been in Masada, to Samaria, and when he had settled them securely, he marched to take the remaining parts of Galilee, and to drive away the garrisons placed there by Antigo

2. But when Herod had reached * Sepphoris, in a very great snow, he took the city without any difficulty; the guards that should have kept it, flying away before it was assaulted ; where he gave an opportunity to his followers that had been in distress to refrelh

themselves, there being in that city a great abundance of necessaries. After which he hafted away to the robbers that were in the caves, who over-ran a great part of the country, and did as great mischief to its inhabitants as a war itselt could have done. Accordingly he sent before hand three cohorts of footmen, and one troop of horsemen to the village Arbela, and came himself + forty days afterwards with

nus.

* This Sepphoris, the metropolis of Galilee, so often mentioned by Josephus, has coins till remaining, Ottopisov, as Spanheim bere informs us.

+ This way of (peaking, after 40 days, is interpreted by Josephus himselt, on the 40th day ; Antiq. B. XIV. ch. xv. lect. 4. Vol. 11. In like manner, when JoSephus says, ch, xxxiü. fec. 8. that Herud lived after he had ordered Antipater to

the rest of his forces. Yet were not the enemy affrig bied at his assault, but met him in arms ; for their skili was that of warriors, but their boldness was the boldness of robbers : when, therefore, it came to a pitched battle, they put to flight Herod's left wing with their right one ; but Herod, wheeling about on the sudden from his own right wing, come to their assistance, and both made his own left wing return back froin its flight, and tell upon the pursuers, and cooled their courage, till they could not bear the attempts that were made direcily upon them, and so turned back and ran away.

3. But Herod followed them, and sew ihem as he followed them, and destroyed a great part of them, till thole that remained were scatiered beyond the river | Jordan,) and Galllee was freed from 'he terrors they had been under, excepring from those that remained, and lay concealed in caves, which required longer time ere they could be conquered. In order to which Herod, in the first place, distributed the fruits of their former labours to the soldiers, and gave every one of thein an hundred and filly drachma of silver, and a great deal more to their commanders, and sent then into their winter quarters. He also sent to his youngest brother Pheroras to take care of a good market for them where they might buy themselves provisions, and to build a wall about Alexandrium, who took care of both those injunctions accordingly.

4. In the mean tiine Antony abode ai Athens, while Ven. tidius called for Silo and Herod to come to the war againit the Parthians, but ordered them first to settle the affairs of Judea: So Herod willingly dismissed Silo to go to Ventidius, but he made an expedition himself against those that lay in the caves. Now these caves were in the precipices of craggy mountains, and could not be come at from any lide fico they had only fome winding path ways, very narrow, by which they got up to them, but the rock 'that lay on their front had beneath it valleys of a val depth, and of an almost perpendicular declivity ; in somuch that ihe king was doubt. ful for a long time what to do, by reason of a kind of impoffi. bility there was of attacking the place. Yet did be at lengih make use of a contrivance ihat was subjeći to the utmost haz.' ard; for he let down the most hardy of his men in chefts, and set them at the mouths of the dens. Now these men flew the robbers and their families, and when they made relistance, they sent in fire upon them, [and burnt them ;]ånd a's Herod was de Girous of saving some of them, he had proclamation made, that they should come and deliver themselves up to him ; but not one of them came willingly so him, and of those i hat were compelled to come, many preferred death to captiv. ity. And bere a certain old man, the father of leven chil. dren, whose children, together with their mother, deGred him to give them leave to go out, upon the assurance and right hand that was offered them, flew them after the following manner : He ordered every one of them to go out, while he stood himself at the cave's mouth, and slew that son of his perpetually who went out. Herod was near enough to lee this right, and his bowels of compassion were moved at it, and he stretched out his right hand to the old man, and besought him to spare his children ; yer did not he relent at all upon what he said, but over and above reproached Herod on the lowuess of his descent, and flew his wite as well as his chil. dren; and when he had thrown their dead bodies down the precipice, he at last threw himself down after them.

chap xiii. fect.

be Nain 5 days ; this is by himself interpreted, Antiq. B. XVII. ch. viii. fe&. a. Vol. II. that he died on the 5th day afterward $o also what is in this book,

1. after two years, is, Antiq. B. XIV.ch. xiii. fe&t. 3. Vol. II. on the second year. And Dean Aldrich here notes that this way of speaking is familia iar to Jofephus.

5. By this means Herod subdued these caves, and the robbers that were in them. He then left there a part of his army, as many as he thought sufficient to prevent any sedition, and made Ptolemy their general, and returned to Samaria : He led also with him three thousand armed footmen, and fix hundred horsemen againit Antigonus. Now here thole that used to raise tumults in Galilee, having liberty fo to do upon his departure, fell unexpectedly upon Ptolemy, the general of his forces, and new him : They also laid the country waste, and then retired to the bogs, and to places not easily to be found. But when Herod was informed of this insurrection, he came to the asistance of the country immediately, and destroyed a great number of the feditious, and raised the siages of all those fortresses they had besieged : He allo exacted the tribute of an hundred talents of his enemies, as a penalty for the mutations they had made in the country.

6. By this time the Parthians being already driven out of the country, and Pacorus flain, Ventidius, by Antony's command, lent a thousand horsemen, and two legions, as auxiliaries to Herod, against Antigonus. Now Antigonus befought Macheras, - who was their general, by letter, to to his assistance, and made a great many mournful complaints about Herod's violence, and about the injuries he did to the kingdom; and promised to give him money for such his asGitance : But he complied not with his invitation to betray bis trust, for he did not concemn him that sent him especially while Herod gave him more money [than the other offered]. So he pretended friendship to Antigonus, but came as a ipy to discover his affairs; although he did not herein comply with Herod, who diffuaded him from so doing. But Antigo. nus perceived what his intentions were beforehand, and excluded him out of the city, and defended himself against him, as against an enemy from the walls ; till Macheras was alhamed of what he had done, and retired to Emmaus to Herod; and,

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