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disregarded, is a perfectly irrelevant single citizen, or a sovereign state. question, provided there is no refer. And what can render these rights ence to such article or law on the less sacred in the latter case than face of the securities themselves : in the former? The words, right the purchasers have bought, trust- and obligation, are perfectly recip. ing to the explicit promise of the rocal terms. If a state can sustain state, and the state can not be per. the relation of creditor, it can also mitted to assert that the promise is sustain that of debtor; if she posnot absolutely binding. Now how sesses all the unquestioned rights can a state, when thus indebted, originated by the one, she can as. be ever released, except by a full sume all the obligations which appayment to the creditors ? Her pertain to the other. The remedies legislature, in the wanton exercise may indeed be different in the two of what is called parliamentary om- different cases, but the rights and nipotence, may profess to affirm or obligations will be reciprocally the to nullify the contract, just as they same. Can then the individual debt. may profess to nullify the laws of or be ever released from his indebtCongress, or to release the citizen edness, except by actual payment, from the obligations of an oath. On or by the creditor's voluntary rethe same principle, a giant may linquishment of the debt ? We discharge himself from paying the know, as who does not know, that debt which he owes to a dwarf. every commercial country has its The dwarf has not sufficient phys. bankrupt laws, and insolvent laws, ical strength to compel the giant to and statutes of limitation, and we be honest, and perhaps the holders mean not to assert that such legisof her bonds can find no tribunal lation is unnecessary; but what do that will constrain Mississippi to pay all such laws truly affirm ? That either the principal or the interest'; the debtor has been thus released but when we speak of a release from the obligation to pay his credfrom the obligation of a debt, we itor-is this their declared intenrefer to some other discharge than tion? Or is it this; that while the that of club law. Right and wrong obligation on the one side and the are still realities, justice-as be- right on the other continue the tween individuals respectively, or same, the state will not assist the between a community on the one creditor by the process of her courts side and individuals on the other, to enforce his rights? It may be has a fixed moral, and not a con- expedient for the commonwealth or ventional, meaning; and we accord- the monarch to enact such laws, ingly ask once more, how can a the complicated relations of comstate, when indebted, be ever re- merce may render it indispensable, leased, except by a full payment to but, as has been already said, these the creditors ? Her actual inability laws take away the remedy merely, to pay, even if it be that of utter they do not and they can not lessen bankruptcy, alters not the fact of the right nor the obligation. Sup. her indebtedness; she will be justi- pose the insolvent or the bankrupt fied in not paying while this ina- should again accumulate property ; bility continues, but she is still a is he not as sacredly required to debtor, and as soon as her solvency pay his creditors, as if the laws had returns payment inust be made. never professed in any sense to
We are here arguing, it will be discharge him? His obligations to seen, upon the assumption that the his creditors were created by the rights of the creditor are equally eternal principles of justice, and not sacred, whether the debtor is à by the acts of a legislature or the natural or an artificial person, a rescripts of a despot ; how then can
any human legislation set him free? generous, kind, amiable persons can He contracted his debts, not as a be found, as we believe, where there mere member of a political soci- is one strictly honest man. Theirs ety, not as a citizen or a subject, are the virtues of impulse, or of but as a man, as a moral being; instinct; but his is the virtue of im. and whence does civil government movable principle. derive the power, we ask, to ex. Did the limits which we have tinguish such obligations ? If the prescribed to ourselves permit, we state can release him from the duty could pursue this train of illustration of paying his debts, it can release at length; but we must close. The him from the duty of speaking the subject in many of its aspects, is truth; for the obligations of justice indeed most unwelcome; but our are as absolutely sacred as those motto, although we rest on other of veracity. If it can lessen in the hopes than those of the ancient Roleast degree the sanctity of any one man, is—“ never despair of the reright and of its corresponding duty, public.” Mississippi herself appears it can abolish all rights, it can re- to be awaking, slowly indeed, to a lease from every duty. And are recognition of the dishonor which we then asked, why, if such views she has thus attached to her own are to be sanctioned, does so much
So large a body of her citimisapprehension on this subject pre- zens are now insisting that these vail, why do men so generally con. repudiated bonds must be paid, that sider themselves released from all they will ere long, as we trust, be. indebtedness by the operation of come the majority. And the justice, these specific laws ? We will give the equity, of the whole matter is a twofold answer: most men are so apparent, that even her partisan willing to adopt the laws of the politicians must in mere shame reland as their own standard of mo- trace their own footsteps, when the rality ; and but very few men are tempest which they have temporari. strictly, absolutely honest. Twentyly excited shall have passed away.
WHITTINGHAM'S CHARGE TO HIS CLERGY.*
THE “bishop of the diocese of Catholics in the countries included Maryland,” formerly professor in within “ the Roman obedience,” the “General Theological Semina. and the members of the Greek ry” in New York, is known to the- communion in Russia and the East, ologians as the American editor of constitute the one catholic church, Palmer on the Church-a book of now unhappily divided by mutual much learning and much sophistry, misunderstandings, but hereafter to the principal design of which seems be gloriously reunited ; and that all to be to show that Episcopalians " dissenters” who have either sepa. in England and America, Roman rated themselves from this catholic
body, or have been in due form ex. * The Body of Christ. A charge de
cluded from it, are without the pale livered to the clergy of the Diocese of of that church out of which there Maryland, by William Rollinson Whit- iş no salvation. The cool atrocity tingham, Bishop of the Diocese ; at the
of such a system—wrought out with annual convention in Baltimore, Thursday, June 1st, 1843. Published by order all sorts of sophistry, and propped of the convention.
up with all sorts of authorities-a Vol. I.
system which, without a shudder, can question. The charge now be
. consigns to perdition such saints of fore us has merits of ils own in God, as Owen and Bunyan, Watts respect to extent of learning, force and Doddridge, Edwards and Ers- of thought, and dignity of style, far kine, Fuller and Dwight, Brainerd superior to the common standardand Carey, and all, however distin. we will not say of Episcopalian, guished by the fruits of the Spirit, but of episcopal literature. The who have dared to trust in Christ authority of Dr. Whittingham is not without trusting in the intercession merely official, but personal. He of a human priesthood-indicates speaks not simply as the bishop of not only an unsound judgment, but a diocese, but as a ripe scholar, a disordered moral sense, on the a practiced professor, an earnest part of the Oxford author and his thinker, a zealous and enthusiastic American editor.
sectarian. In the progress of the We have now an opportunity of controversy now pending between becoming further acquainted with the system of “organized unity," Bishop Whittingham, as he exhibits and the system of individual rehimself in a “charge” addressed sponsibility,” we shall expect to by him to his clergy at Baltimore, hear often from the author of this in the month of June last. In the charge. marks of scholarship and of a vig. It is a great mistake, to suppose orous though erratic mind, it an. that the difference between the Episswers well to the reputation of its copal church and other commun. author ; and on the whole, it leads ions called evangelical, is merely us to entertain a more respectful or chiefly a difference about organiopinion both of his intellect and of zation and forms. As we underhis moral and religious sensibilities, stand the matter, and as Bishop than we had been able to gather Whittingham understands it, the diffrom his editorial labors betowed on ference respects the very nature the volumes of Palmer. It seems and being of Christianity. Some important to notice the manifesta. Episcopalians, we are aware, do tions of opinion in the Episcopal not so understand it. There is a church, especially such as proceed small but respectable party in that from men of eminence and of offi. church, who are most honest in cial or personal authority. The the belief, that a ministry consisting interests of pure Christianity may of prelates, presbyters, and deabe promoted, by bringing before cons, is of divine right, and was the public the true points of differ- instituted as such by the Apostlesence between the system prevalent who hold that every Christian como in that church and the evangelical munity not taught and governed by system. In this point of view, a such a ministry, is irregularly and certain Episcopal charge recently imperfectly organized—who heartpublished in New England, has an ily adopt the forms of their own importance which will justify us in church, as on the whole better than reserving it for a distinct and de- any other existing mode of public liberate consideration. A solemn worship and who, at the same official announcement of the opin- time, hold distinctly and unequivoion of the Episcopal church in one cally, the doctrines of the evangelof the New England states, on “the ical system. But these persons do errors of the times,” is a document, not give character to the Episcopal the value of which in determining church. Of some of them it may the true character and position of be said, that though they are in that church in relation to evangel- that church, they are hardly of it, ical religion, no reasonable man In her history, in her constitutional
structure and tendencies, in her lit- tion of a chief dignitary of the Epis
, urgy, in her actual position and copal church; and we inquire, what influence, “ the church” as a body is the theory of Christianity held
” is entirely against them. They by this learned and able writer ? are
Christians more than they “ The Body of Christ." When
- Churchmen.” The genuine we see this phrase in the work of Churchman, who is well grounded an Episcopalian, we are at no loss in what are called “church princi. to conjecture what the writer is ples,” holds a system of religion, thinking of. It is continually as
, which, just in proportion as it is dis. sumed by such writers, that inastinctly developed, is directly antag. much as the church is the body of onistic to the religion of the New Christ, therefore some definite or. Testament Multitudes, including ganized society, under the name
, not a few of the Episcopalian min of the church, must be exclusively
. istry, hold that system vaguely, in Christ's body, and membership in its mere rudiments, and with va- that organized society is the only rious incoherent admixtures of the known union of the soul to Christ. true Gospel. In many such, the In accordance with this assumption, truth which they receive counter- the author before us talks about acts the error which they mix with “the revealed plan of salvation it, and becomes effectual by the through membership in the body of grace of God to their spiritual re- Christ,” (p. 3,) meaning that there generation, and to the salvation of is no salvation revealed for any their souls. In Episcopalian pulpits, who are not subject to the regulaand even in those which are epis- tions and officers of that particucopal, there is often a vague and lar society, or fraternity of socieobscure way of touching upon the ties, which he recognizes as the great truths of spiritual religion, only church. In accordance with which on the one hand, never brings the same assumption, he affirms home to the careless conscience, that “the Divine commission of the lulled to repose by the steady ob- ministry, in apostolical succession, servance of formalities, the great as the authorized dispenser of jusduty of immediate repentance—and tifying and sanctifying grace in the on the other hand, rarely astounds sacraments of regeneration, and of such hearers as may be accustomed the communion of the body and to evangelical ideas, with any ex. blood of Christ, has been the unin. plicit denial of the doctrines of terrupted doctrine of the church, grace. Sometimes this is simply since she received it in and with the legitimate result of vagueness the Scriptures, down to the present and obscurity in the mind of the day.” p. 15. In the same way of preacher. Sometimes, we suspect, reasoning, he sets it down, in lanit may proceed from a well consid- guage borrowed from Bishop Bev
in the communica. eridge, as the utmost achievement tion of religious knowledge.” The of the “skill and power” of Satan, consequence is, that, within and in his “spite at our church,” “to without the Episcopal church, the draw as many as he can from system of doctrines fairly belonging its communion”--that is, from the to that church-the actual difference communion of membership and subbetween that sect, as a sect, and jection in that particular organizathe great catholic communion of tion which is governed by bishevangelical Protestants—is to a great ops, and ministered to by sacrificing extent imperfectly understood. priests and preaching deacons
We turn then to Bishop Whitting. * and to make them schismatics; ; ham's charge-an official produc- that so, being separated from the
body, they may not partake of the though the Roman Catholic church spirit that is in it, nor by conse- holds substantially the same views. quence receive any benefit from We have not made these quotations this promise of our blessed Savior for the sake of stigmatizing them to the governors of the catholic and as Popery, or Romanism, or even as apostolic church in all ages, Lo, Puseyism. Pusey and the Oxford
' I am with you always, to the end Tractarians hold these views it is of the world.?” p. 16. In like true ; but we have yet to learn manner it is declared by our au- that these views are peculiar to thor, that “the Scriptures afford no the writers of that school. Popery, authority for believing that Christor Romanism, is not the doctrine can be truly preached otherwise which the church of Rome holds than in the church,” (p. 17,) that is, in common with other bodies of in the church as organized under a nominal Christians. Puseyism is prelatical government, professing to not that doctrine which the Tractahave come down, in an uninter- rians hold in common with the for. rupted succession, from the apos. mularies and the most honored pretles. In the same way, our author lates and authors of the Anglican “ teaches the reality of the interest church, in almost every successive in Christ which pertains to member- age since the Reformation. What ship in his visible Body ;” and he Hobart held, and Seabury-what declares, that of the Body which was held by Sancroft and Laud,
“ the sacraments unite and seal as by Montague, Cosins and Andrews, His, it is explicitly revealed that it by Bancroft and Queen Elizabethis His body, into which, entering what stands as it were engraven on by baptism, we are baptized into a rock in the catechism and offices Jesus Christ, and have put on Christ, of the church—is not Puseyism, and in which, eating His flesh, and but “church-of-Englandism.” The drinking His blood, we dwell in quotations which we have given are Him, and He in us.” p. 18. In the valuable, as exhibiting frankly and same way, it is declared that the with high authority, a scheme of redemption through the cross of religion which is diligently propa. Christ, is “ applied to the individual gated in many portions of our coun. believer by the Spirit in the ordi- try, and which has much to recomnances ;” and that it is “the grace mend it to the deceitful and cor. transmitted in the church, from the rupt heart of unregenerate man, but Root through the branches vitally which is not always stated by its joined to it by faith, which alone advocates with so little reserve. enables them to bear their fruit.” The system may be briefly and me. p. 20. And, not to multiply these thodically summed up in the followquotations unnecessarily, it is said ing propositions. in the same way by this same au- 1. Christ as a Savior is related, thor, that the true knowledge of not directly to individual sinners “the Gospel in its fullness, its free. who repent and believe, but only to ness, and its power,” is “the knowl. the church as a visible corporation, edge of Christ as the Savior of the and to in duals only as members Body, and therefore of its members of that corporation. Consequently, as in the Body-of ourselves as the doctrine of election, as it is com. members of His body, of His flesh monly called—the doctrine which and of His bones, nourished and “considers the election of the indi. cherished by his Spirit, ministered vidual believer as the immediate in his ordinances, and received by end of the Divine counsels”-is a faith.” p. 21.
great mistake, a piece of “Calvin's These views are not Popery ; al. misspent ingenuity.” p. 6. God's