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been laid upon a sloping piece of land ; it was called Menmaat-Rā,* after the prenomen of its builder. The Phænician

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Plan of the Temple of Seti I. at Abydos. graffiti show that the temple must have ceased to be used at a comparatively early period. It would seem that it was

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Sculptured relief in which King Seti I. is represented seated before a table of offerings; behind him is the king's KA or “double” bearing his Horus name. The hieroglyphic text consists of a series of addresses to the king, each containing the mention of a gift made to him by the “ Eye of Horus."

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nearly finished when Seti I. died, and that his son Rameses II. only added the pillars in front and the decoration. Its exterior consists of two courts, A and B, the wall which divides them, and the façade; all these parts were built by Rameses II. The pillars are inscribed with religious scenes and figures of the king and the god Osiris. On the large wall to the south of the central door is an inscription in which Rameses II. relates all that he has done for the honour of his father's memory, how he erected statues of him at Thebes and Memphis, and how he built up the sacred doors. At the end of it he gives a brief sketch of his childhood, and the various grades of rank and dignities which he held.

In the interior the first hall, C, is of the time of Rameses II., but it is possible to see under the rough hieroglyphics of this king the finer ones of Seti I.; this hall contains twenty-four pillars arranged in two rows. The scenes on the walls represent figures of the gods and of the king offering to them, the names of the nomes, etc., etc. The second hall, D, is larger than the first, the style and finish of the sculptures are very fine, the hieroglyphics are in relief, and it contains 36 columns, arranged in three rows. From this hall seven short naves dedicated to Horus, Isis, Osiris,f,men, Harmachis, Ptah, and Seti I. respectively, lead into seven vaulted chambers, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, beautifully shaped and decorated, which are dedicated to the same beings. The scenes on the walls of six of these chambers represent the ceremonies which the king was supposed to perform in them daily; those in the seventh refer to the apotheosis of the king. At the end of chamber G is a door which leads into the sanctuary of Osiris, L, and in the corridor M is the famous Tablet of Abydos (see pp. 6, 7), which gives the names of seventy-six kings of Egypt, beginning with Menes and ending with Seti I. The value of this most interesting monument has been pointed out on p. 5.

The Temple of Rameses II. was dedicated by this king

to the god Osiris; it lies a little to the north of the temple of Seti I. Many distinguished scholars thought that this was the famous shrine which all Egypt adored, but the excavations made there by M. Mariette proved that it was not. It would seem that during the French OCcupation of Egypt in the early part of this century this temple stood almost intact; since

that time, however, much damage has been wrought upon it, that the portions of wall which now remain

P'lan of the Temple of Rameses II. at Abydos. are only about eight or nine feet high. The fragment of the second Tablet of Abydos, now in the British Museum,

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came from this temple. The few scenes and fragments of inscriptions which remain are interesting but not important.

A little to the north of the temple of Rameses II. is a Coptic monastery, the church of which is dedicated to Ainba Musas.

In recent years a number of excavations which have been productive of important results have been carried on near Abydos. In 1896 M. de Morgan discovered a number of remarkable tombs of the Neolithic Period at Al-Amrah, about three miles to the east of Abydos, and in 1895, 1896, and 1897 M. Amélineau excavated the tombs of a number of kings of the first three dynasties at Umm al-Ka'ab, which lies to the west of the necropolis of the Middle Empire ; and in the course of his work at Abydos he also discovered a shrine which the ancient Egyptians placed on a spot where they seem to have believed that the god Osiris was buried, or, at any rate, where some traditions declared he was laid. In the winter of 1899-1900 Professor Petrie also carried on excavations on M. Amélineau's old sites at Abydos, and recovered a number of objects of the same class as those found by M. Amélineau. The true value and general historical position of the antiquities which were found at Abydos by M. Amélineau and M. de Morgan, as well as of those which were found by M. de Morgan at Nakâda and Abydos, and by Professor Petrie at Ballas and Tûkh, were first indicated by M. de Morgan himself in his volumes of Recherches sur les Origines de l'Égypte, Paris, 1896 and 1897. The royal names ȚEN, ATCHAB, and SMERKHAT, discovered by M. de Morgan, were tentatively identified with the kings of the ist dynasty who are usually called Hesepti, Merbapen, and Semen-Ptaḥ, by Herr Sethe in the Aegyptische Zeitschrift, Bd. 35, p. 1, ff. 1897. M. Jéquier identified PERÅBSEN with Neter-baiu, a king of the 2nd dynasty, and Professor Petrie

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