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Christ appears to St. Peter.


And [Peter] departed, wondering in himself at that Jerusalem. which was come to pass 26.


Christ appears to Cleophas, and another Disciple, going
to Emmaus".

MARK XVI. 12. LUKE XXIV. 13—32.

Lu.xxiv. 13. And behold,


After that he appeared in another form, unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.

Lu.xxiv.13. two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs, And they talked together of all these things which had happened.



And it came to pass, that while they communed and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.

26 I have placed this clause by itself, as it was most probably on his return from the sepulchre, after he had received the accounts of the women, that our Lord appeared to St. Peter. His desire to see our Lord, and perhaps to implore his forgiveness, as well as that characteristic eagerness and ardour, by which he was on all occasions distinguished, excited in him the desire to make his second visit to the sepulchre, to examine it, to be again convinced that the body was removed; and in the hopes of meeting our Lord, if Christ would condescend to meet him. Cranfield very beautifully observes, St. Peter had denied his Master, and had his Master shewed himself to any other of the men, before he shewed himself to him, might not he have thought his repentance ineffectual, his reconciliation impossible, and consequently been plunged into despair? Though his fall was attended with inconceivable aggravation, yet the magnanimity and mercy of his Saviour was still greater, and knew no bounds.

These sections are arranged in their present order upon the concurrent testimony of all the harmonizers, as well as the internal evidence. Every thing recorded in them affords a new source of wonder. Christ, in his glorified form, passes through the folded or barred up doors, as if his body were like the light, or the air, and yet he appeals to his disciples to satisfy themselves that he was not a spirit, but possessed of material and solid flesh. We are assured that with this same body be ascended into another state, and that our bodies shall be made like his at the day of the resurrection. (Philip. iv. ad fin (a.)

(a) See Kninoel, where the different opinions concerning the body of Christ, are briefly summed up. See also Bishop Horsley's Sermons on the Resurrection, sermon fourth. I am contented with the facts of Scripture, and dare not indulge in the various conjectures which present themselves on these subjects. The reader who is fond of such speculations on these points, may peruse the works of King, (Morsels of Criticism,) More, Fleming, Flavel (on the Soul,) Thomas Aquinas Prima Pars, Question 50, to the end of Question 65, where he will find the most strange and fantastical reveries that ever entered the imagination of a human being.

Lu.xxiv.16. But their eyes were holden, that they should not know Jerusalem.










And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one with another as ye walk, and are sad?

And one of them, whose name was Cleophas; answering, said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Israel, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?

And he said unto them, What things? And they said, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet, mighty in deed and word before God and all the people: And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.

But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to-day is the third day since these things were done.

Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre ;

And when they found not his body, they came, saying, That they had seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.

And certain of them which were with us went to the
sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said;
but him they saw not.

25. Then he said unto them, O fools and slow of heart to
believe all that the prophets have spoken!



Ought not Christ to have suffered all these things, and to enter into his glory?

And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself 28.

28 This desponding sentiment, "We trusted that it had been he that should have redeemed Israel," &c. &c. must have been the general opinion of our Lord's disciples. All their hopes were buried with him in the sepulchre. They thought it impossible that he whom they had lately seen bleeding, and expiring on the cross, "the very scorn of men, and the outcast of the people," should by his own power break the bands of death, and rise again in greater beauty and perfection, “ For as yet they knew not the Scriptures."


The Scriptures assert, that it behoved Christ to suf

In the law, by the offering up of Isaac-in the brazen serpent-in the sacrifice of the animals, particularly in the paschal lamb. In the prophets. Isaiah liii. 5. 7, 8.2. Daniel's prophecy; Dan. íx. 25, 26. the Messiah shall be cut off.-3. Zech. xii. 10. they shall look on me whom they have pierced. In the Psalms; Ps. ii. 1-3. xx. 1–18. xvi. 9, 10. thine Holy One to see corruption.

It was intimated that he should rise again the third dayIsaac the third day was released-sacrifices eaten the third day. The resurrection does not seem to be alluded to in the prophets, except in the type of Jonah, and in Isa. liii. and

Lu.xxiv. 28.



And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they Jerusalem. went: and he made as though he would have gone farther. But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is towards evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them.

And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. 31. And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.


And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened unto us the Scriptures?


Cleophas and his Companion return to Jerusalem, and
assure the Apostles that Christ had certainly risen.

MARK XVI. 13. LUKE Xxiv. 33-35.

Mar.xvi.13. And they went and told it unto the residue; neither believed they them.




John xx. 19.

And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,

Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon 29.

And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.


Christ appears to the assembled Apostles, Thomas only
being absent, convinces them of the identity of the Resur-
rection Body, and blesses them.

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Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, came Jesus

Zech. xii. 10. But on the prophecies and types fulfilled in the
sufferings of Christ, see the sermon of Joseph Mede on Luke
xxiv. 32. Hale's Analysis, vol. ii. part 2. and West on the Re-

29 It has been supposed that this verse ought to be read in-
terrogatively, for, in Mark xvi. 13. we learn that the apostles
did not believe the testimony of the two disciples from Em-
maus, while it is here asserted that they were saying, at the
very time when the disciples from Emmaus came into the room,
The Lord has risen, &c. This difficulty is removed, if we sup-
pose that our Lord had appeared to St. Peter, and they were
expressing their incredulity at the moment the disciples arrived
from Emmaus, in the language of this passage, Has the Lord
risen, and has he indeed appeared unto Simon?

Lu.xxiv.36. as they thus spake, and stood in the midst of them, and Jerusalem. saith unto them, Peace be unto you.

Lu.xxiv.37. But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed


that they had seen a spirit.

And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and
why do thoughts arise in your hearts?

39. Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: han-
dle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as
ye see me have.


And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.

John xx. 20. and his side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord.




John xx. 21.



John xx.24.


And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?

And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of a honeycomb.

And he took it, and did eat before them.

Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as the Father hath sent me, even so send I you.

And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost:

Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. JOHN XX. part of ver. 19, 20.

19-and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you,

20 And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands


Thomas is still incredulous.

JOHN XX. 24, 25.

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.



Christ appears to the Eleven, Thomas being present.
MARK XVI. 14. JOHN XX. 26-29.

Mar.xvi.14. Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at

30 This verse of St. Mark has generally been supposed to refer to our Lord's appearance to his disciples on the evening of his resurrection. But St. Luke and St. John both describe the first appearance of Christ to his disciples, and neither of them gives the least intimation of any thing like reproof, which

Mar.xvi.14. meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hard- Jerusalem. ness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

John xx. 26.



And after eight days" again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them. Then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.

Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side; and be not faithless, but believing.

And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord
and my God 32.

they then heard from the mouth of their affectionate Lord. The
whole of his discourse and behaviour to them was directed at
that time to the composing of their troubles, and the satisfying
of their doubts. Reprehension was reserved for the following
Sunday, when a whole week having been allowed to examine
and compare the proofs of his resurrection, and to call to mind
his own predictions and promises concerning it. They who
continued incredulous were become more worthy of blame. Then
if he said no more by way of reproof than what he said to St.
Thomas, it was a reprehension of the rest of the company who
were in the same state of mind: and it is sufficient to justify
St. Mark's expression, “He upbraided them with their unbe-
lief and hardness of heart." St. Mark says, "He appeared
unto the eleven," and it was of consequence to inform us that
he was seen by the apostles: but when he adds, "And he up-
braided them with their unbelief," he extends his view to all
those whom he had spoken of as incredulous in the preceding


31 The first appearances of our Lord to his apostles appear to have taken place uniformly on the first day of the week; and from their consequent observance of that day, originated the Christian sabbath.

32 The disbelief of the Apostles is the means of furnishing us with full and satisfactory demonstration of the resurrection of Christ. Throughout the divine dispensations, it is to be observed, that every doctrine, and every important truth, is gradually revealed, and here we have a conspicuous instance of this progressive system. An angel first declares the glorious event! The empty sepulchre confirms the women's report. Christ's appearance to Mary Magdalene shewed that he was alive-that to the disciples at Emmaus proved that it was at , least the spirit of Christ, by expounding the prophecies, and breaking of bread-that to the eleven shewed the reality of his body, and the conviction given to St. Thomas, proved it the self same body that had been crucified. The resurrection was testified by the conviction of the senses. The ear heard it, and blessed-the eye saw it, and gave witness-the hand was satisfied with feeling-the intellect was fed upon the heavenly teaching, and the Holy Ghost descended in confirmation of the holy truth. The miracle of the draught of fishes gave evidence of the continued existence of the same divine and almighty nature, which had been displayed before the crucifixion, and the Spirit of God, was manifested in opening the Scriptures, till their hearts burned within them. Every possible demonstration was vouchsafed that man could receive, or God bestow. The wounds which had been inflicted upon the body

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