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71. Of the barbarians, the infantry of the Persians and the cavalry of the Sacae most distinguished themselves; and Mardonius is said to have shown himself the bravest man. Of the Greeks, though the Tegeans and Athenians showed great bravery, the Lacedaemonians exceeded in valour. I can prove this in no other way, (for all these conquered those opposed to them,) except that they were engaged with the strongest part of the enemy's army, and conquered them. And in my opinion Aristodemus proved himself by far the bravest: he being the only one of the three hundred saved from Thermopylae, was held in disgrace and dishonour. After him, Posidonius, Philocyon, and Amompharetus the Spartan, most distinguished themselves. However, when it was debated which of them had been the bravest, the Spartans who were present decided, that Aristodemus, evidently wishing to die on account of the disgrace attached to him, and acting like a madman, and leaving the ranks, had performed great deeds; but that Posidonius, not wishing to die, had shown himself a brave man ; and therefore that he was the better. Perhaps, however, they may have said this through envy. All these that I have mentioned, except Aristodemus, of those that died in this battle, were honoured, but Aristodemus, wishing to die on account of the before-mentioned guilt, was not honoured. 72. These, then, were they who acquired the greatest renown at Plataea. For Callicratides died out of the battle, who came to the army the handsomest man of the Greeks of that day, not only of the Lacedaemonians themselves, but also of the other Greeks; he, when Pausanias was sacrificing, was wounded in the side by an arrow ; and then they fought, but he being carried off, regretted his death, and said to Arimnestus a Plataean, that he did not grieve at dying for Greece, but at not having used his arm, and at not having performed any deed worthy of himself, though he desired to perform it. 73. Of the Athenians, Sophanes, son of Eutychides, of the borough of Decelea, is said to have acquired great renown; of the Deceleans, who had once performed an action that was beneficial for all future time, as the Athenians themselves say. For in ancient time, when the Tyndaridae entered the Attic territory with a numerous army in search of Helen, and drove out the people, not knowing where Helen had been carried to, then they say that the Deceleans, but some say that Decelus himself, being indignant at the insolence of Theseus, and alarmed for the whole country of the Athenians, discovered the whole matter to them, and conducted them to Aphidnae, which Titacus, a native of the place, delivered up to the Tyndaridae. In consequence of that action, the Deceleans in Sparta continue to enjoy immunity from tribute and precedence up to the present time, so that in the war that occurred many years after these events between the Athenians and Peloponnesians, when the Lacedaemonians ravaged the rest of Attica, they abstained from Decelea. 74. Of this borough was Sophanes, and having at that time distinguished himself above all the Athenians, he has two different accounts given of him. One, that he carried an iron anchor fastened by a brass chain from the girdle of his cuirass; which, when he approached the enemy, he used to throw out, in order that the enemy, rushing from their ranks, might not be able to move him from his position; and when the flight of his adversaries took place, he determined to take up the anchor and so pursue. Thus this account is given. But the other account, varying from that before given, relates, that on his shield, which constantly turned round and was never at rest, he wore an anchor as a device, and not one of iron fastened from his cuirass. 75. There is also another splendid feat done by Sophanes, for that when the Athenians invested AEgina, he challenged and slew Eurybates of Argos, who had been victor in the pentathlum. But some time after these events it befel this Sophanes, who proved himself a brave man, as he was commanding the Athenians jointly with Leagrus, son of Glaucon, to die at the hands of the Edoni at Datus, as he was fighting for the gold mines. 76. When the barbarians were overthrown by the Greeks at Plataea, thereupon a woman came voluntarily over to them; who, when she learnt that the Persians had perished, and that the Greeks were victorious, being a concubine of Pharandates, son of Theaspes, a Persian, having decked herself and her attendants in much gold, and in the richest attire she had, alighted from her carriage, and advanced towards the Lacedaemonians, who were still employed in slaughter, and when she observed that Pausanias directed every thing, having before become acquainted with his name and country, since she had often heard of them, she knew it must be Pausanias, and embracing his knees, spoke as follows: “King of Sparta, de

liver me, your suppliant, from captive servitude; for you have thus far benefited me, by destroying these men, who pay no regard either to gods or heroes. I am by birth a Coan, daughter to Hegetorides, son of Antagoras. The Persian having taken me away by force at Cos, kept me.” He answered as follows: “Lady, be of good heart, both as a suppliant, and moreover, if you have spoken the truth, and are indeed the daughter of Hegetorides the Coan, who is the best friend I have of all who dwell in those parts.” Having thus spoken, he committed her to the care of the ephori, who were present; and afterwards sent her to Ægina, where she herself wished to go. 77. Presently after the arrival of the lady, the Mantineans came up when all was over ; and finding they were come too late for the engagement, they considered it a great calamity, and confessed that they deserved to be punished. But being informed that the Medes with Artabazus had fled, they wished to pursue them as far as Thessaly; but the Lacedaemonians dissuaded them from pursuing the fugitives. They therefore, having returned to their own country, banished the generals of their army from the land. After the Mantineans came the Eleans: and the Eleans, in the same manner as the Mantineans, considering it a calamity, marched away; and they also on their return home banished their generals. Such were the events relating to the Mantineans and Eleans. 78. In the camp of the AEginetae at Plataea, was Lampon, son of Pytheas, one of the most eminent of the AEginetae : he having a most iniquitous proposal to make, went to Pausanias; and having come into his presence, spoke with earnestness as follows: “Son of Cleombrotus, a superhuman feat has been achieved by you, both on account of its greatness and splendour; and God has granted to you, by delivering Greece, to acquire the greatest renown of all the Greeks whom we know of. But do you complete what remains to be done after this, in order that still greater fame may attend you, and henceforth every barbarian may beware of attempting to do wicked deeds against the Greeks. For when Leonidas died at Thermopylae, Mardonius and Xerxes, having cut off his head, fixed it on a pole. By requiting him in the same manner, you will have praise first from all the Spartans, and then from the rest of the Greeks. For by impaling Mardonius, you will avenge your uncle Leonidas.” He spoke thus, thinking to gratify Pausanias. 79. But he answered as follows: “AFginetan friend, I admire your good intentions and your foresight; but you have failed to form a right judgment; for having highly extolled me, my country, and my achievement, you have thrown all down again to nothing, by advising me to insult a dead body, and saying, that if I do so I shall increase my fame, which is more fit for barbarians to do than Greeks, and which we abhor even in them. I cannot therefore in this matter please the AEginetae, nor those to whom such things would be pleasing; it is sufficient for me to please the Spartans, by doing and speaking what is right. As for Leonidas, whose death you exhort me to avenge, I affirm, that he has been amply avenged ; both he and all the others who fell at Thermopylae, have been avenged by the countless deaths of these men. However, do not you hereafter come to me with such a proposal, nor give such advice; and be thankful that you escape unpunished.” He having received this answer, went away. 80. Pausanias, having made proclamation that no one should touch the booty, commanded the helots to bring together all the treasures. They accordingly, dispersing themselves through the camp, found tents decked with gold and silver, and couches gilt, and plated and golden bowls, and cups and other drinking vessels; they also found sacks on the waggons in which were discovered gold and silver caldrons: and from the bodies that lay dead they stripped bracelets, necklaces, and scymetars of gold; but no account at all was taken of the variegated apparel. Here the helots stole a great deal and sold it to the AEginetae, and they also produced a great deal, such of it as they could not conceal: so that the great wealth of the AEginetae hence had its beginning, for that they purchased gold from the helots as if it had been brass. 81. Having collected the treasures together, and taken from them a tithe for the god at Delphi, from which the golden tripod was dedicated, which stands on the three-headed brazen serpent, close to the altar; and having taken out a tithe for the god at Olympia, from which they dedicated the brazen Jupiter, ten cubits high; and a tithe to the god at the Isthmus, from which was made the brazen Neptune, seven cubits high ; having taken out these, they divided the rest, and each took the share they were entitled to, as well the concubines of the Persians,

as the gold, silver, and other treasures, and beasts of burden. Now what choice presents were given to those who most distinguished themselves at Plataea, is mentioned by no one; yet I am of opinion that such presents were given to them. But for Pausanias ten of every thing was selected and given him, women, horses, talents, camels, and all other treasures in like manner. 82. It is said also that the following occurred: that Xerxes, flying from Greece, left all his own equipage to Mardonius; Pausanias, therefore, seeing Mardonius's equipage furnished with gold, silver, and various-coloured hangings, ordered the bakers and cooks to prepare a supper in the same manner as for Mardonius: and when they being ordered had so done, that Pausanias thereupon, seeing gold and silver couches handsomely carved, and gold and silver tables, and magnificent preparations for the supper, being astonished at the profusion set before him, in derision ordered his own attendants to prepare a Laconian supper; and that when the repast was spread, the difference was great, and Pausanias laughing sent for the generals of the Greeks; and when they had assembled, Pausanias, pointing to each preparation for supper, said, “Men of Greece, I have called you together for this reason, to show you the folly of the leader of the Medes; who having such fare as this, has come to us, who have such poor fare, to take it from us.” It is related that Pausanias said this to the generals of the Greeks. 83. A considerable time after these events, many of the Plataeans found chests of gold and silver, and other precious things. And still later than this, the following also was discovered, when the bodies were bared of flesh; for the Plataeans brought together the bones to one place; there was found a skull without any seam, consisting of one bone; there was also discovered a jaw, and the upper jaw had teeth growing in a piece, all in one bone, both the front teeth and the grinders; there was likewise discovered the skeleton of a man five cubits high. 84. The next day after, the body of Mardonius had disappeared ; by whom removed, I am unable to say for certain. I have indeed heard of many men and of various nations, who are said to have buried Mardonius, and I know that several have received large presents from Artontes, son of Mardonius, for so doing. Yet who of them it was that carried off

and buried the body of Mardonius, I am unable to ascertain

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