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statue of Rameses II. ; that on the right hand has now disappeared. Passing through this pylon, the famous "Hall of Columns" is entered. The twelve columns forming the double row in the middle are about sixty feet high and about thirty-five feet in circumference; the other columns,

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Karnak during the reign of Thothmes III., B.C. 1600.

From Mariette, Karnak, Pl. VI.

22 in number, are about forty feet high and twenty-seven feet in circumference. Rameses I. set up one column, Seti I., the builder of this hall, set up seventy-nine, and the remaining fifty-four were set up by Rameses II. It

is thought that this hall was originally roofed over. At the end of it is the third propylon, which was built by Amenophis III., and served as the entrance to the temple until the time of Rameses I. Between this and the next pylon is a narrow passage, in the middle of which stood two obelisks which were set up by Thothmes I. ; the southern one is still standing, and bears the names of this king, but the northern one has fallen,* and its fragments show that Thothmes III. caused his name to be carved on it. At the southern end of this passage are the remains of a gate built by Rameses IX. The fourth and fifth pylons were built by Thothmes I. Between them stood fourteen columns, six of which were set up by Thothmes I., and eight by Amenophis II., and two granite obelisks; one of the obelisks still stands. They were hewn out of the granite quarry by the command of Hātshepset, the daughter of Thothmes I., and sister and wife of Thothmes II. and aunt of Thothmes III. This able woman set them up in honour of "father Amen," and she relates in the inscriptions on the base of the standing obelisk that she covered their tops with tcham, i.e., gold containing a large proportion of silver, so that they could be seen from a very great distance, and that she had them hewn and brought down to Thebes in about seven months. These obelisks were brought into their chamber from the south side, and were 98 and 105 feet high respectively; the masonry round their bases is of the time of Thothines III.

The sixth pylon and the two walls which flank it on the north and south are the work of Thothmes III.,

It was standing when Pococke visited Egypt in 1737-1739. + “Scarcely had the royal brother and husband of Hashop (sic) closed his eyes, when the proud queen threw aside her woman's veil, and appeared in all the splendour of Pharaoh, as a born king. For she laid aside her woman's dress, clothed herself in man's attire, and adorned herself with the crown and insignia of royally.” (Brugsch’s Egypt under the Pharaohs, Vol. I., p. 349.)

but Seti II., Rameses III., and Rameses IV. have added their cartouches to them. On this pylon are inscribed a large number of geographical names of interest. Passing through it, the visitor finds himself in a vestibule which leads into a red granite oblong chamber, inscribed with the

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Karnak during the reign of Amenophis III., B.C. 1500.

From Mariette, Karnak, Pl. VI. name of Philip III. of Macedon, which is often said to have formed the sanctuary. In the chambers on each side of it are found the names of Amenophis I., Thothmes I., Thothmes II., Hātshepset, and Thothmes III. The sanctuary stood in the centre of the large court beyond the two oblong red granite pedestals. In ancient days, when Thebes was pillaged by her conquerors, it would seem that special care was taken to uproot not only the shrine, but the very foundations upon which it rested. Some fragments of columns inscribed with the name of Usertsen I. found there prove, however, that its foundation dates from the reign of this king. Beyond the sanctuary court is a large building of the time of Thothmes III.

In it was found the famous Tablet of Ancestors,* now in Paris, where this king is seen making offerings to a number of his royal ancestors. On the north side of the building is the chamber in which he made his offerings, and on the east side is a chamber where he adored the hawk, the emblem of the Sun-god Rā; this latter chamber was restored by Alexander II. Behind the great temple, and quite distinct from it, was another small temple. On the south side of the great temple was a lake which was filled by infiltration from the Nile; it appears only to have been used for processional purposes, as water for ablutionary and other purposes was drawn from the well on the north side of the interior of the temple. The lake was dug during the reign of Thothmes III., and its stone quays probably belong to the same period.

Passing through the gate at the southern end of the passage in which stands the obelisk of Hātshepset, a long avenue with four pylons is entered; the first was built by Thothmes III., the second by Thothmes I., and the third and fourth by Heru-em-ḥeb. Between these last two, on the east side, stood a temple built by Amenophis II. On the north side of the Great Temple are the ruins of two smaller buildings which belong to the time of the XXVIth dynasty.

The outside of the north wall of the Great Hall of Columns is ornamented with some interesting scenes from the battles of Seti I. against the peoples who lived to the north

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east of Syria and in Mesopotamia, called Shasu, Rutennu, and Kharu. The king is represented as having conquered all these people, and returning to Thebes laden with much

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Karnak under Rameses II., B.C. 1333.

From Mariette, Karnak, Pl. VII.

spoil and bringing many captives. It is doubtful if the events really took place in the order in which they are

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