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lowed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the bles. sed to their brave men, whon they call heroes, and demi-gods; and to the souls of the wicked ile region of the ungodly in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected, whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death, and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. These are the divine doctrines of the Essens * about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste for their philosophy.
12. There are also those among them who undertake tof foretel things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purification, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets ; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions.
13. Moreeover, there is another order of Essens, who agree with the rest as to their way of living, and customs, and laws, but differ from them in the point of marriage, as thinking that by not marrying they cut off the principal part of human life, which is the prospect of succession ; bay rather, that if all men should be of the same opinion, the whole race of mankind would fail. However, they try their spouses for three years, and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to
• Of these Jewish or Essene, and indeed Christian doctrines concerning souls, both good and bad, in Hades, see that excellent discourse or homily, of our Josephus' concering Hades, at the end of vol. yi.
† Dean Aldrich reckons up three examples of this gift of prophecy in several of these Essens, out of Josephus himself, viz, in the History of the War. B.j.ch iii. 85, vol. v. Judas foretold the death of Antigonus at Strato's Tower; B.ji. ch. vï. § 3, Simon foretold that Ar. chelaus should reign but wine or ten years; and Antiq B. xv. ch x. $ 4, 5, vol. iii. Menehem foretold that Herod should be king, and should reign tyrannically, and that for more than twerty or even thirty years. 'All which came to pass accordingly.
pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with sone of their garments on, as do the men with somewhat girded about them And these are the customs of this order of Essens.
14. But then as to the other two orders as first mentioned, the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skilful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate, for providence, and to God, and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men; although fate does not co-operate in every action. They say, that all souls are incorruptible, but that the * souls of good men only are removed into other bodies, but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men's own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. Moreover, the Pha. risees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord and regard for the public ; but the behaviour of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party, is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say conceruing the philosophical sects among the Jews.
• There is so much more here about the Essens, than is cited from Josephus in Porphyry and Eusebius, and yet so much less about the Pharisees and Sadducees, the other two Jewish sects, than would naturally be expected in proportion to the Essens or third sect, nay than seems to be referred to by himself elsewhere, that one is tempted to suppose Josephus had at first written less of the one, and more of the two others than his present copies afford us; as also, that, by some unknown accident, our present copies are here made up of the large edition in the first place, and ofthe smalle er in the second See the note in Havercamp's edition. However, what Josephus says in the name of the Pharisees, that only the souls of good men go out of one body into another, although all souls be immortal, and still the souls of the bad are liable to eternal punishment; as also what he says afterwards, Antiq. B. xviii. chap. i. $ 3. vol. iv. that the soul's vigour is immortal, and that under the earth they receive rewards or punishments according as their lives have been virtuous or vicious in this present world ; that to the bad is allolCHAP. IX. The death of Salome, The cities which Herod and Philip built.
Pilate occasions disturbances. l'iberius puts Agrippa into bonds, but Caius frees him from them, and makes him king. Herod Au
tipas is banished. $ 1. And now as the ethnarchy of Archelaus was fallen into a Roman province, the other sons of Herod, Philip, and that Herod who was called Antipas, each of them took upon them the administration of their own tetrarchs; for when Salome died, she bequeathed to Julia, the wife of Augustus, both her toparchy, and Jampia, as also her plantation of palm-trees that were in Phasaelis.* But when the Roman empire was translated to Tiberius, the son of Julia, upon the death of Augustus, who had reigned silly seven years, six months and two days, both Herod and Philip continued in their tetrarchies and the latter of them built the city Cæsarea, at the fountains of Jordan, and in the region of Papeas; as also the city Julias, in the lower Gaulanitis. Herod also built the city Tiberias in Galilee, and in Perea [beyond Jordan] another that was also called Julias.
2. Now Pilate, who was sent as procurator into Judea by Tiberias, sent by night those images of Cæsar that are called ensigns, into Jerusalem. This excited a very great tumult among the Jews when it was day ; for those that were near
ted an eternal prison, but that the good are permitted to live again in this world, are nearly agreeable to the doctrines of Christianity. Ondy Josephus' rejection of the return of the wicked into other bodies, or into this world, which he grants to the good, looks somewhat like a contradiction of St. Paul's account of the doctrine of the Jews, that they themselves allowed that there should be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust, Acts. ch. xxiv. 15. Yet because Josepbus' account is that of the Pharisees, and St. Paul's that of the Jews in general, and of himself, the contradiction is not very certain.
* We have here, in that Greek MS. which was once Alexander Petavius, but is now in the library at Leyden, two most remarkable additions to the common copies, though deemed worth little remark by the editor ; which, upon the mention of Tiberius coming 10 the empire, inserts first the famous testimony of Josephus concerning Jesus Christ, as it stands verbatim in the Antiquities, B. xviii. chap. iii. 5 3 vol. iv. with some parts of that excellent discourse or homily of Josephus concerning Hades, annexed to the work. But what is here principally to be noted, is this, that in this homily, Josephus, having just mentioned Christ, as God the word, and the Judge of the world, appointed by the father, &c, adds that he had himself elsewhere spoken about him more nicely or particularly.
them were astonished at the sight of them, as indications that their laws were trodden under foot; for those laws do not permit any sort of image to be brought into the city. Nay, besides the indignation which the citizens had themselves at this procedure, a vast number of people came runing out of the country. These came zealously to Pilate to Cæsarea, and besought him to carry those ensigns out of Jerusalem, and to preserve them their ancient laws inviolable ; bat upon Pilate's denial of their request, they fell down prostrate upon the ground, and continued immovable in that posture for five days and as many nights.
3. On the next day Pilate sat upon his tribunal, in the open market-place, and called to him the multitude, as desirous to give them an answer ; and then gave a signal to the soldiers that they should all by agreement, at once encompass the Jews with their weapons, so the band of soldiers stood round about the Jews, in three ranks. The Jews were under the utmost consternation at that unexpected sight: Pilate also said to them, that they should be cut in pieces, unless they would admit of Cæsar's images, and gave intimation to the soldiers to draw their naked swords. Hereupon the Jews, as it were at one signal, fell down in vast numbers together, and exposed their necks bare, and cried out, that they were sooner ready to be slain, than that their law should be transgressed. Hereupon Pilate was greatly surprised at their prodigious superstition, and gave order that the ensigos should be presently carried out of Jerusalem.
4. After this he raised another disturbance, by expending that sacred treasure which is called * Corban upon aqueducts, whereby he brought water from the distance of four hundred furlongs. At this the multitude had indignation ; and when Pilate was come to Jerusalem, they came about his tribunal, and made a clamour at it. Now when he was ap. prized aforehand of this disturbance, he mixed his own soldiers in their armour with the multitude, and ordered them to conceal themselves under the habits of private men, and not indeed to use their swords, but with their staves to beat those that made the clamour. He then gave the signal from his tribunal (to do as he had bidden them.] Now the Jews
• This use of corban, oblation, as here applied to the sacred mo. ney dedicated to God in the treasury of the temple, illustrates our Saviour's words, Mark vii, 11, 12..
were so sadly beaten, that many of them perished by the stripes they received, and many of them perished as trodden to death by themselves ; by which means the multitude was astonished at the calamity of those that were slain, and hield their peace.
5. In the mean tiine Agrippa, the son of that Aristobulus who had been slain by his father Herod, came to Tiberius, to accuse Herod the tetrarch; who not admitting of his accusation he stayed at Rome, and cultivated a friendship with others of the men of note, but principally with Caius, the son of Germanicus, who was then but a private person. Now this Agrippa, at a certain time, feasted Caius: and as he was very complaisant to him on several other accounts, he at length stretched out his hands, and openly wished that Tiberius might die, and that he might quickly see him emperor of the world. This was told to Tiberius by one of Agrippa's domestics, who thereupon was very angry and ordered A. grippa to be bound, and had him very ill treated in the prison for six months, until Tiberius died after he had reigned twenty-two years, six months, and three days.
6. But when Caius was made Cæsar, he released Agrip. pa from his boods, and made him king of Philip's tetrarchy, who was now dead; but when Agrippa had arrived at that degree of dignity, he inflamed the ambitious desires of Herod "the tetrarch, who was chiefly induced to hope for the royal authority by his wife Herodias, who reproached him for his sloth, and told him, that it was only because he would not sail to Cæsar, that he was destitute of that great dignity; for since Cæsar had made Agrippa a king, from a private per. son, much more would he advance him from a tetrarch 10 that dignity. These arguments prevailed with flerod, so that he came to Caius, by whom he was punished for his ambition, by being banished into Spain; for Agrippa followed him in order to accuse him ; to whom also Caius gave his tetrarchy by way of addition. So Herod died in Spain, whither his wife had followed him.'
CHAP. x, Caius commands that his statue should be set up in the temple it.
self; and what Petronius did thereupon. $ 1. Now Caius Cæsar did so grossly abuse the fortune he had arrived at, as to take himself to be a god, and to de.