« PreviousContinue »
On the sandy bank of the Rio A pure, closely | The sun was in the zenith, and the flood of light bordering upon the impenetrable forest, our author which he poured down upon the river, and which and his party bivouacked, as usual, under the flashed sparkling back, owing to a slight rippling open sky, surrounded by fires to keep off the sible the red haze which veiled the distance. All
movement of the waters, rendered still more senprowling jaguars. Their hammocks were sus- the naked rocks and boulders around were covered spended on the oars of their boat, driven vertically with a countless number of large thick scaled iguainto the ground, and the deep stillness which pre- nas, gecko-lizards, and variously spotted salamanvailed was broken only from time to time by the ders. Motionless, with uplifted heads and open blowing of the fresh-water dolphins. Soon after mouths, they appeared to inhale the burning air eleven o'clock, however, such a disturbance began seek shelter in the recesses of the forest, and the birds
with ecstasy. At such times the larger animals to be heard in the adjoining forest that sleep hide themselves under the thick foliage of the became impossible during the rest of the night.
trees, or in the clefts of the rocks ; but if, under The wild cries of animals appeared to rage this apparent entire stillness of nature, we listen throughout the forest. Among the many voices for the faintest tones which an attentive ear can which resounded together, the Indians could only seize, we shall perceive an all-pervading rustling recognize those which, after short pauses in the sound, a humming and fluttering of insects close general uproar, were first heard singly. There to the ground and in the lower strata of the was the monotonous howling of the alouates, (the atmosphere. Everything announces a world of howling monkeys,) the plaintive, soft, and almost organic activity and life. In every bush-in flute-like tones of the small sapajous, the snarling the cracked bark of the trees—in the earth, grumblings of the striped nocturnal monkey, (the undermined by hymenopterous insects, life stirs nictipithicus trivirgatus, which I was the first to audibly. It is, as it were, one of the many describe,) the interrupted cries of the great tiger, voices of nature, heard only by the sensitive the cuguar, or maneless American lion, the pec- and reverent ear of her true votaries.— Vol. i., cary, the sloth, and a host of parrots, parraquas, p. 272. and other pheasant-like birds. When the tigers
The second volume of the “ Aspects of Nacame near the edge of the forest, our dog, which
commences with an instructive section “ On had before barked incessantly, came howling to seek refuge under our hammocks. Sometimes the the Physiognomy of Plants,” which our author cry of the tiger was heard to proceed from amidst prefaces with some highly interesting observathe high branches of a tree, and was then always tions on the universal profusion with which life accompanied by the plaintive piping of the monkeys is everywhere distributed. The information who were seeking to escape from the unwonted which is here conveyed to us has a high value at pursuit. If we ask the Indians why this incessant all times, but a very peculiar one at present, noise and disturbance takes place on particular when a great degree of probability attaches to the nights, they answer with a smile, that the animals are rejoicing in the bright moonlight, and opinion that organic atoms floating in our atmos keeping the feast of the full moon. To me it phere are the cause of that dreadful pestilence appeared that the scene had originated in some which is now ravaging our land. In the dense accidental combat, that the disturbance had spread and lower strata of our atmosphere we are accusto other animals, and that the noise was thus more tomed to observe the general prevalence of life, and more increased. The jaguar pursues the pec- and travellers inform us that even on the polar caries and tapirs, and these pressing against each ice the air is resonant with the cries and songs other in their flight break through the interwoven
In the tree-like shrubs which impede their escape ; the of birds and with the hum of insect life. apes on the tops of the trees, frightened by the upper and more ethereal regions, 18,000 feet crash, join their cries to those of the larger ani- above the sea, Humboldt and Bonpland found mals; the tribes of birds who build their nests in butterflies and other winged insects which were communities are aroused, and thus the whole ani- involuntarily carried opwards by ascending curmal world is thrown into a state of commotion. rents of air'; and the same creatures are carried Longer experience taught us that it is not always by storms from the land to great distances at sea. the celebration of the brightness of the moon which M. Boussingault, when ascending the Silla of breaks the repose of the woods. We witnessed the same occurrence repeatedly, and found that the Caraccas, saw whitish shining bodies rise from voices were loudest during violent falls of rain, or the valley to the summit of the Silla, 5755 feet when the flashing lightning, accompanied with loud high, and then sink down to the neighboring seapeals of thunder, illuminated the deep recesses of This phenomenon continued for an hour, the forest.–Vol. i., pp. 270, 271.
and the white bodies, though considered at first Scenes like these form a striking contrast with to have been small birds, turned out to be agglomthe deathlike stillness which prevails within the erations of straws or blades of grass, belonging tropics “ during the noontide hours of a day of to the genus vilfa tenacissima, which abounds in more than usual heat." At the remarkable the Caraccas and Cumana. Creatures still more “ Narrows” of Baraguan, where the Orinoco wonderful are detected in the atmosphere by the forces itself through a pass 5690 feet wide, our aid of the microscope---minute animalculæ, (the author had occasion to spend a day, when the rotiseræ and Brachione,) motionless and apparently thermometer in the shade was so high as 122° of dead, lifted up by the winds in multitudes from Fahrenheit. There was not a breath of air to the surface of evaporating waters, and carried stir the fine dustlike sand, and under the influence about by atmospheric currents till the descending of the mirage the outlines of every distant object dews restore them to the earth, dissolving the had wave-like undulations.
film or envelope which incloses their transparent 38
rotating bodies, and probably by means of the oxy- the horizon, shedding through the perfumed ajr gen which all water contains, breathing new irri- their soft and planetary lustre ; while bright fur tability into their dormant organs.
rows of flashing light marked the track of the dolThe celebrated Prussian naturalist, M. Ehren- Not only the ocean but also the waters of our
phins through the midst of the foaming waves. berg, has discovered, by microscopic observations, marshes hide from us an innumerable multitude of that the dust or yellow sand which falls like rain strange forms. The naked eye can with difficulty on the Atlantic, near the Cape de Verde Islands, distinguish the Cyclidias, the Euglenes, and the and is sometimes transported to Italy, and even host of Naiads, divisible by branches like the the middle of Europe, consists of a multitude of Lemna cr Duckweed, of which they seek the shade. silicious shelled microscopic animals. * Per
Other creatures inhabit receptacles where the light haps,” says Humboldt,
cannot penetrate, and an atmosphere variously
many of them float for, composed, but differing from that which we breathe: years in the upper strata of the atmosphere, until such are the spotted ascaris which lives beneath they are brought down by verlical currents, or in the skin of the earthworm, the Leucoptera, of a accompaniment with the superior current of the bright silvery color, in the interior of the shore trade-winds, still susceptible of rcvirification, and Naiad, and a Pentastoma which inhabits the large multiplying their species by spontaneous division, pulmonary cells of the rattlesnake of the tropics. in conformity with the particular laws of their There are animalculæ in the blood of frogs and of organization.”
salmon ; and even, according to Nordmann, in the
fluids of the eyes of fishes, and in the gills of the But besides creatures fully formed, (continues bleak.-Vol. ii., pp. 5–7. Humboldt,) the atmosphere contains innumerable germs of future life, such as the eggs of insects
It is impossible to peruse this interesting extract and the seeds of plants; the latter provided with without noticing its connection with the remarkalight hairy and feathery appendages, by means of ble discovery recently made by Dr. Brittan, that which they are wafted through the air during long in the discharges from cholera patients there are autumnal wanderings. Even the fertilizing dust found minute cellular bodies, having the aspect and or pollen from the anthers of the male flowers, in character of fungi ; that the same bodies exist in spaces in which the sexes are separated, is carried the air and water of infected districts; and that over land and sea by winds and by the agency of they are never found in persons or places where winged insects to the solitary female plant on other shores. Thus, wherever the glance of the inquirer the pestilence does not prevail. These bodies vary into nature penetrates, he sees the continual dis- from the five hundredth to the ten thousandth of semination of life either fully formed or in the germ. an inch in diameter ; the smallest occurring in the
We do not yet know where life is most air, the larger in the vomit, and the largest in the abundant—whether on continents or in the unfath- dejections of the patient. Admitting, what yet omed depths of the ocean. Through the excellent requires a more extensive induction to prove it, work of Ehrenberg, we have seen the sphere of that these bodies are always found in cholera organic life extend, and its horizon widen before our eyes, both in the tropical parts of the ocean, localities, and never elsewhere, it still remains to and in the fixed or floating masses of ice of the be proved that they are the cause of cholera. Antarctic seas. Silicious shelled polygastrica, Various facts, however, have been long known, and even coscinodisca with their green ovaries, which render such an opinion highly probable. have been found alive enveloped in masses of ice The Ergot, the Spermoedia Clarus,* for example, only twelve degrees from the pole ; the small black
a fungus which is found abundantly in rye, is a glacier flea and Podurellæ inhabit the narrow tubular holes examined by Agassiz, in the Swiss gla- poison which exercises a peculiar action in conciers. Ehrenberg has shown that on several micro- tracting the uterus. When it composes a considscopic infusoria others live as parasites; and that, erable portion of rye bread, it produces one of the in the Gallionellæ, such is their prodigious power most terrific diseases to which man is subject. of development, or capability of division, that in The ergot is produced within the seeds of various the space of four days an animalcıle invisible to the grasses, such as Secale Agrostis, Dactylis, Fesnaked eye can form two cubic fect of the Bilin polish- iuca, Elymus, &c.; and is rather supposed to be ing slale! In the sea, gelatinous worms, living or dead, shine like stars, and by their phosphoric light
a diseased condition of the grasses, than a distinct change the surface of the wide occan into a sea of fungus. But however this may be, its effects fire. Ineffaceable is the impression made on my upon the human frame are terrible. Nausea and mind by the calm nights of the torrid zone on the vomiting are followed by numbness in the extremwaters of the Pacific. I still see the dark azure ities, which, after being wasted with excruciating of the firmament, the constellation of the ship near pains, eventually fall off at the joints, withering the zenith, and that of the cross declining towards and becoming black and hard as if they were
* By means of a drop of water Fontana revivel a roti. charred. This disease, called the Dry Gangrene, tera which had been two years dried and motionless, has been at different periods epidemic in Sologne, Baker resuscitated paste eels which Needham had given him in 1744. Doyere has recently shown by experiment a tract of wet, clayey land lying between the ibat roliferæ come to life, or pass from a motionless state Loire and Cher. The fingers, or toes, or feet, or to a state of motion, after having been exposed to temperatures of from 11° to 1130 of Fahr. Payen has legs, or even the thighs, drop off at the joints. shown that the sporules of a minute fungus, (oidium According to Duhamel, it destroyed nineteen out curantiacum,) whích deposits a ruddy feathery coating on of twenty of the persons infected ; and, strange to a crumb of bread are not deprived of iheir power of germipation by an exposure of half an hour to a temperature * The Sphacelia segetum of Klotzsch, and the Farina. of froin 1830 to 207° of Fahr., before being strewed on ria Poæ of Sowerby. It is called Ergot, from its resemfresh and perfectly unspoiled dough.
blance to a cock's spur.
say, the sufferer in one case survived, though his greatly exaggerated. But I have now been an thighs fell off at the hips ! But it is not merely in eye-witness to almost the whole scene of horror so rye that this poison is generated. When wheat, finely painted in the following lines : rice, or any other grain is prematurely cut down,
Plage proxima circun or has become mouldy or musty from age, or from Fugit rapta cntis, pallentiaque ossa retexit: the place where it has been stored ;-or when it Tegmine poples erat: femorum quoque musculus omnis
Meinira noiant sanie : Surae fluxere: sine ullo has been mixed with the seeds of poisonous plants, Liquitur, et nigra distillant iguina tabe. such as the Raphanus Raphanistrum, and the
Phars., Lib. ix. v. 767. Lolium temulentum, the most excruciating diseases An effect equally strange has been observed in have been occasioned by its use.
America, on men and animals when fed on maize But the most remarkable case on record of the that has been overrun with parasitic fungi. Deer, frightful effects of damaged grain, poisoned no dogs, apes, and parrots were intoxicated by it. doubt by some deleterious fungus, is recorded in Fowls Jaid eggs without shells. Swine cast their the Philosophical Transactions, for 1762,* by Dr. bristles, while in man it occasioned only baldness Charlton Wollaston, and by the Reverend Mr. and loosening of the teeth. Bones, minister of the parish. John Downing a In the passage which we have quoted from poor laboring man, who lived at Waitisham, near Humboldt, we see the process by which deleterious Stowmarket, in Suffolk, had fed his family, a wife elements of a microscopic kind, and even those of and six children, on what is called clog-wheat, or a large size, are raised in the atmosphere and dislaid wheat, which had been gathered and thrashed tributed over the globe by currents in the lower separately. The pickle was discolored, and smaller and upper regions of the air ;-but these and other than that of the sound wheat. On Sunday morn- elements equally deleterious may be lifted up or ing, the 10th of January, the eldest girl com- even torn from the surface of the earth, by proplained of a violent pain in the calf of her left cesses not generally referred to. When electric leg. In the evening, another girl felt the same ity passes from one body to another, it carries off pain. On Monday, the mother and another child; the matter of the first body in an extreme state of and on Tuesday, all the rest, except the father, subdivision, and deposits it upon the other ;-and were similarly affected. The sufferers shrieked when, in the ascending stroke, lightning passes with pain. In a few days the legs turned black from the earth into the atmosphere, it carries up and mortified. The mortified parts separated from into the air the imponderable elements of the metthe sound part, in most of them, two inches be-alliferous rocks and ground from which it issued. low the knee ; in some lower, and in one child, at Iron, sulphur, and carbon, have been actually the ancle. Three lost both legs : and one child transported by lightning, and deposited on the surboth feet. The following was the state of their faces which were struck by it; and when we conlegs on the 13th April :
sider the prevalence of electricity at every season Mary, the mother, aged 40, the right foot off and in every clime, and its constant transmission at the ancle ; the left leg mortified; a mere bone, from the crust of the earth into the superincumbut not off.
bent atmosphere, we can see no difficulty in under“Mary, aged 15, one leg off below the knee ; standing how the elements of all metallic bodies the other perfectly sphacelated, but not yet off. may be diffused through the air, and distributed,
Elizabeth, aged 13, both legs off below the according to laws of which we know nothing, by knees.
the magnetic or other currents which surround the "Sarah, aged 10, one foot off at the ancle. earth. Inorganic matter, too, in a minute state
“ Robert, aged 8, both legs off below the of subdivision, is thrown off from the hardest knees.
bodies by friction, by change of temperature, and Edward, aged 4, both feet off at the ancle. by ordinary combustion, as well as in volcanic ac“An infant, four months old, dead.
tion; so that there are powerful causes constantly “ The father was attacked about a fortnight at work, the tendency of which is to pollute the after the rest of the family, and in a slighter de air we breathe, and the water we drink, with gree, the pain being confined to the two fingers of ingredients that, when accumulated and combined his right hand, which turned blackish, and were by particular causes, may prove injurious to health, withered for some time, but are now better ; and and be destructive of animal and vegetable life. he has in some degree recovered the use of them.” Although the characteristic physiognomy of dif
During this calamity, the family were in other ferent parts of the earth's surface depends on a respects in good health. They ate heartily, and great variety of external phenomena, yet our auslept well, and were free from fever. “ One poor thor is justly of opinion that the principal impresboy, in particular, looked as healthy and florid as sion made upon the traveller, is by the magnitude possible ; and was sitting on the bed quite jolly, and constant presence of vegetable forms. Anidrumming with his stumps !"
mals, from their smaller size and their repeated “ I have always been used," says Dr. Wollas- absence from the eye, form but a small part of ton, in concluding his extrordinary narrative, “to a landscape, while trees, from their greater size read Lucan's description of the effects of the bite and their occurrence in extended groups, fill the of the little serpent Seps as fabulous, or at least eye with a living mass of vegetation. Their * Vol. lii., part ii., pp. 523, 521.
great age, too, combined with their magnitude,
influences the imagination, and gives them a mon- which he proceeds to give very interesting deumental character, equally interesting to the anti- scriptions from observations made during his quarian and the naturalist. The colossal Dragon travels both in the new and old continents, in tree at Oratava, in Teneriffe, is 79 feet round its regions between the 60th degree of north, and the root, and 48 as measured by Humboldt further 10th degree of south latitude. These forms, up.
Mass is reported to have been said at a which decrease and increase from the equator to small altar erected in its hollow trunk, in the 15th the poles, according to fixed laws, he thus enucentury. Trees, 32 feet in diameter, have been merales :observed at the mouth of the Senegal river; and Palms.
Lianes or Twining Rope Golberry found in the valley of the two Gaguacks, Plantains or Bananas. Plants. trunks which were 32 English feet in diameter Malvaceæ and Bomba- Aloe form.
Gramineæ. near the roots, with a height of only 64 feet.
Ferns. Adanson and Perottet assign an age from 5150 to
Ericeæ or Heath form. Liliaceæ. 6000 years to the Adansonia which they measured,
Willow form. but calculations made from the nuinber of annual
Myrtaceæ. rings, give shorter periods. According to Decan- Casuarineæ.
Melastomaceæ. dolle, the yew (Taxus baccata) of Braborne, in Needle Trees.
Laurel form. Kent, is 3000 years old ; the Scotch yew of For- Pothos and Aroidiæ. tingal, from 2500 to 2600 years ; those of Crow- The Palms have been universally regarded as hurst, in Surrey, 1450 years old, and those of the loftiest, noblest, and most beautiful of all Ripon, in Yorkshire, 1200. Endlicken observes, vegetable forms. Their gigantic, slender, ringed, that a yew tree in the churchyard of Grasford, in and occasionally prickly stems, sometimes 192 North Wales, which is 52 feet in circuit below the feet high, terminate in an aspiring and shining branches, is 1400 years old, and that another in foliage, either fan-like or pinnated, with leaves Derbyshire, has the age of 2096 years. In Li- frequently curled like some of the grasses. In thuania lime trees have been cut down with 815 receding from the equator they diminish in height annual rings, and 87 feet in circuit, and Humboldt and beauty. The true climate of palms is under states that in the southern temperate zone, some a mean annual temperature of from 78° to 811°, species of Eucalyptus attain the enormous height The date variety lives, but does not thrive, in a of 245 feet. The largest oak tree in Europe is mean temperature of from 59° to 621°. In some near Saintes, in Lower Charente. It is 64 feet species of the flower, sheath opens suddenly with high, 294 in circuit near the ground, and 23 feet an audible sound. five feet higher up. “In the dead part of the The Palms are everywhere accompanied by trunk, a little chamber has been arranged, from Plantains or Bananas, groves of which form the 10 feet 8 inches to 12 feet 9 inches wide, and 9 ornaments of moist localities in the regions of the feet 8 inches high, with a semicircular bench cut out equator. Their stems are low, succulent, and of the fresh wood. A window gives light to the almost herbaceous, and are surmounted by long interior, so that the sides of the chamber, which and bright green silky leaves, of a texture thin is closed with a door, are clothed with ferns and and loose. Noble and beautiful in shape, they lichens, giving it a pleasing appearance. Judging adorn the habitation of man, while they form the by the size of a small piece of wood which has principal article of his subsistence under the been cut above the door, and in which the marks torrid zone. of 200 annual rings have been counted, the oak of The Malvaccæ and Bombaceæ have trunks enorSaintes would be between 1800 and 2000 years mously thick ;-leaves large, soft, and woolly, old."
and superb flowers often of a purple or crimson It has been found from ancient and trustworthy color. The Buobab, or monkey bread tree, documents of the 11th century, that the root of the belongs to this group. It is 32 feet in diameter, wild rose tree at the crypt of the Cathedral of but moderately high, and it is probably the largest Hildesheim, is 1000 years old, and its stem 800. and most ancient organic monument on our planet. After the cathedral had been burnt down, Bishop The Mexican hand tree, (cheirostemus platanoides,) Hezilo inclosed the roots of this rose tree in a with its long curved anthers projecting beyond the vault which still exists, and he trained the fine purple blossom, cansing it to resemble a band branches of it upon the walls of the crypt built or claw, belongs to this group. Throughout the above the vault, and reconsecrated in 1061. The Mexican States, this one highly ancient tree is stem, which is now living, is 261 feet high, and the only existing individual of this extraordinary 2 inches thick. The most remarkable example race, and is supposed to be a stranger planted of vegetable development is exhibited in the Fucus about five centuries ago by the kings of Toluca. gigantea, a submarine plant, which attains a The Mimosa, including the acacia, desmanthus, length of from 400 to 430 feet, surpassing the gleditschia, porleria, tamarindus, &c., are never loftiest coniferæ, such as the Sequoia gigantea, found in the temperate zone of the Old World, and the Taxodium sempervirens.
though they occur in the United States. They The aspector physiognomy of Nature is, frequently exhibit that umbrella-like arrangement according to Humboldt, determined by about sir- of the branches which is seen in the Italian stoneteen or nineteen different forms of vegetation, of pine. The deep blue of the tropic sky seen
through their finely divided foliage, has an ex- | Pinus Douglassii,*
245 feet. tremely picturesque effect.
300 The irritability of the Pinus Trigona,
250-266 African sensitive plant is mentioned by Theo
Pinus Strobus, New Hampshire,
300 phrastus and Pliny. The most excitable is the Sequoia Gigantea, New California, Mimosa pudica, and next to it the Dormiens, the As a contrast to these lofty trees, Humboldt somniens, and the somniculosa.
mentions the small willow tree, (Salix arctica,) as The Ericeæ or Heaths appear to be limited to being only two inches high. The Tristicha hyponly one side of our planet, covering large tracts noides in only 7, or less than 1% of an inch, from the plains of Germany, France, and Britain, and yet provided with sexual organs, like our oaks to the extremity of Norway. They adorn Italy, and most gigantic trees. The needles of some and are luxuriant on the Peak of Teneriffe ; but of the pine trees vary from five inches to a foot in the most varied assemblage of species occurs in length. The roots of the Taxodium distichum, the south of Africa. They are entirely wanting in which is sometimes 128 feet in height and 39 Australia, and of the 300 known species, only one in girth, presents the curious phenomenon of woody has been discovered across the whole of America, excrescences, conical and rounded, and sometimes from Pennsylvania and Labrador to Nootka and tabular, which project from 3 to 41 feet from the Alashka.
ground, and when they are very numerous they 'The Cactus form is almost wholly American, have been likened by travellers to the grave-tablets and Humboldt observes, that “there is hardly in a Jewish burying-ground. The stumps of anything in vegetable physiognomy which makes white pines exhibit a very singular degree of viso singular and ineffaceable an impression on a tality in their roots. After they have been cut newly arrived person as the sight of an arid plain down, they continue for several years to produce thickly covered like those of Cremona, New Bar- fresh layers of wood, and to increase in thickcelona, with columnar and candelabra-like elevated ness, without putting forth new shoots, leaves, or cactus stems." The forms of the cactus are branches. sometimes spherical, sometimes pointed, and some- The Pothos forms, or Aroidiæ, belong to the times they are shaped like tall polygonal columns, tropics. These plants clothe parasitically the resembling the pipes of an organ. In the arid trunks of aged and decaying forest trees. Their plains of South America, the melon cactus sup- stalks are succulent and herbaceous, and support plies a refreshing juice to the animal tribes, though large leaves. The flowers of the aroidiæ are the plant is half-buried in the sand, and encased cased in hooded sheaths, and some of them during with prickles. The columnar cactus carries its the development of the flower exhibit a very constems to the height of 30 or 32 feet, dividing into siderable increase of vital heat, about 40° above candelabra-like branches like the African Euphor- that of the atmosphere, the increase being, in bias. The cactus wood is incorruptible, and well some, greater in the male than in the female plant. fitted for oars.
The vital heat which Dutrochet observed to a The Orchideæ are remarkable for their bright small extent in other plants, and even among fungreen succulent leaves, and for the colors and guses, disappeared at night. Leaves of great size, shape of their flowers, sometimes resembling in- suspended on long fleshy leaf-stalks, are found in sects, and sometimes birds. The taste for this the Nymphæaceæ and Nelumboneæ. The round superbly flowering group of plants became so gen-| leaves of the magnificent water plant, the Victoria eral, that the brothers Loddiges had in 1848 cul- Regina, discovered in 1837, by Sir Robert Schomtivated 2360 species, and at the end of 1848, burgh, in the river Berbice, are six feet in diame Klotzsch reckoned the number of species to be 3545. ter, and are surrounded by turned-up margins from
The Casuarineæ form, leafless and gloomy, three to five inches high, their inside being light with their string-like branches, embrace trees green, and their outside a bright crimson. The with branches, like the stalks of an equisetaceous flowers, which have an agreeable perfume, are plant. It occurs only in India and in the Pacific. white and rose-colored, and fifteen inches in diam
The Needle Trees, or Coniferæ, including pines, eter, with many hundred petals. About 20 or 30 thuias, and cypresses, are rare in the tropics, and blossoms may be seen at the same time, within a inhabit chiefly the regions of the north. There very small space. According to Poppig, the are 312 species of coniferæ now living, and 178 Euryale Amazonica, which he found near Tese, fossil species found in the coal measures, the had leaves six feet in dianieter. The largest bunter sandstone, the Keupfer, and the Jurassic known flowers, however, belong to a parasitical formations. Of the 114 species of the genus plant, the Rafflesia Arnoldi, discovered in 1818, Pinus which are at present known, not one belongs by Dr. Arnold, in Sumatra. It has a stemless to the southern hemisphere. The following are flower, three English feet in diameter, surrounded the heights of some of the plants of this tree :- by large leaf-like scales. " The flower weighs
above 14 pounds, and, what is very remarkable, Pinus Grandis, in new California, 224 feet. has the smell of beef, like some of the fungi.” Pinus Fremontiana, do. do.,
224 Dacrydium cupressinum, New Zealand, 213
The largest flowers in the world, says our author, Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island, 224 apart from compositæ, (in the Mexican Helianthus imbricata, Chili,
* At three feet above the ground a stem of this tree was Pinus Lambertiana,
224-239 57) feet in girth.