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tion, however, many of the books were actually taken from the people by violence, and sheet-tracts were torn down from the walls of the houses by the underlings of government. Efforts were made to banish the missionaries from the country, but failed. They therefore quietly pursued their labours in-doors, thinking it best to wait till the ferment had subsided. Poor sick people crowded their dwelling, several important and rapid cures were effected; most of the afflicted gladly took books; several persons came on no other errand, and thus knowledge was secretly spread like leaven.

The cases of some visitors were encouraging. One of them was particularly interesting, from his modest, pleasing spirit and intelligent mind. He had read some of the books with much pleasure, and had often been led to reflect about the true God. The knowledge he had obtained in a short time was manifestly not small; the truth seemed to have made a deep impression on his heart, and the missionaries almost felt persuaded that he had received it in the love of it, and already rejoiced in the glad tidings of the gospel.

The following extracts from Mr. Tomlin's journal illustrate the superstitions and cruelty of the people.

"The prah klang's devil' is a gigantic copper statue; seated on a lofty and gradually-diminishing square pedestal, almost thirty feet high, and fifteen square at the base. The figure is apparently human, and the countenance not so fierce as one would naturally imagine of a demon. The prah klang calls it his 'devil,' and worships it through fear it has just been placed on the pedestal; and, latterly, has taken up a great deal of his time and

thoughts he prides himself much on the size of it. The weight of it is two or three tons, and it measures at least six feet across the shoulders. Close by, there is a monastery of priests supported by the prah klang, consisting of about twenty neat white houses, standing a little apart from one another; the whole forming a parallelogram of one hundred yards by twenty-five: each dwelling is barely sufficient for a single occupant: the situation is sequestered and rural, embosomed with trees; and within the area are neat gravel-walks and beautiful flowering shrubs.

"On Saturday a respectable person suddenly entered the room with a handful of blazing incense-sticks, apparently intending to burn them before us. I rushed towards him, snatched them out of his hands, dashed them into the river, and admonished the man severely on his folly and wickedness. He was taken quite by surprise at this rebuke, having come probably in simplicity and ignorance, like the foolish Lycaonians, who wished to do sacrifice to the apostles. Shortly after, another respectable young man came on a secret errand, and put a short letter into our hands of a very different nature from any we have yet received. He got a decisive answer. We can say with Gallio, we will have nothing to do with such matters.

"This is probably a fresh stratagem of our spiritual adversary. Having failed in his former character of a roaring lion,' he now comes with a smooth face to allure us by his wiles; but the Lord keeps us, and breaks every snare set before us.

"The beautiful shark and serpent which I saw floating on the water, during our voyage hither,

appeared then as emblematical of the double character in which Satan might probably assail us here, and such it has been.'

One morning the missionaries went to see the king of Laos and his family, lately taken prisoners, and brought in chains, and who during the previous fortnight were exposed to view in a large iron cage! The news of these captives, and their subsequent arrival, caused great joy to many, and prah klang and other high personages were long busied in devising the best mode of torturing and putting them to death.


They were, however, disappointed in not seeing the king. For some reason or other he was not brought out that day. Nine of his sons and grandsons were in the cage; most of them were grown up, but two were mere children, who deeply affected them by their wretched condition, all having chains round their necks and legs. One particularly, of an open cheerful countenance, sat like an innocent lamb, alike unconscious of having done any wrong, and of the miserable fate that awaited him. Most of the rest also seemed careless and unconcerned, and ate the rice heartily that was brought to them. Two or three, however, hung their heads, and were apparently sunk into a melancholy stupor. Now and then they raised them, and cast a momentary glance upon the spectators, their countenances displaying a wild and cheerless aspect. The sad spectacle exhibited by these was heightened rather than alleviated by the laughter and playfulness of the boys. Close by were the various instruments of torture, placed in terrific array. A large iron boiler for heating oil, to be poured on the body of the king,

after being cut and mangled with knives! On the right of the cage a sort of gallows was erected, having a chain, with a large hook at the end of it, suspended from the top beam. The king, after being tortured, was to be hung upon this hook by the chin. In the front there was a long row of triangular gibbets, formed by three poles joined at the top, and stretching out at the bottom, to form a stable basis on the ground. A spear rose up from the common joining of the poles, a foot or more above them. The king's two principal wives, and his sons, grandsons, &c., amounting in all to fourteen, were to be fixed on these as upon a seat. On the right of the cage was a wooden mortar and pestle to pound the king's children in! What a proof is this that the dark places of the earth are still full of the habitations of cruelty! The people were exhorted to go and see the captives while thus exhibited, previous to execution, and were expected to rejoice on the occasion! Two or three days were expressly set apart as days of joyous festivity! A theatrical exhibition of Siamese players went on close in the neighbourhood, in full view of the melancholy scene the missionaries contemplated. The theatre being open, the spectators might amuse themselves by casting their eyes alternately on these two different scenes.'

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Mr. Gutzlaff has since continued his labours in this part of the earth. Prepared for any thing, he faces obstacles from which others would shrink with dismay, and presses forward in the midst of difficulties, which, to most persons, would prove utterly insurmountable. Neither the secret machinations nor the open violence of men, the dangers of the way, nor scarcely sickness itself, can

Without cringing

make him suspend his efforts. to the high and powerful, he commands their respect, and sometimes secures their favour; while, in imitation of his Divine Master, he joyfully condescends to the meanest and most humble. To the zeal of a missionary he unites the skill of a physician; and by the cures he effects, opens himself a way, amidst the prejudices and estrangements of a false religion, to the hearts of the people. Adopting the dress, and conforming himself, as far as he can consistently do it, to the habits of the Chinese, he enters the junks, or takes his stand in the places of public concourse, and there preaches Jesus Christ, while he exerts all his skill to alleviate the sufferings of his fellowmen. He fearlessly rebukes the profligate, shames the idolater, welcomes the humble inquirer after truth, and wins himself respect and attention from the unbelieving. Many of the English and American residents in China, who had always looked with indifference or contempt on the cause of missions, when they became acquainted with Gutzlaff, were filled with admiration of his character. Some have readily lent him their aid, and contributed to his resources, who, at home, would have been the last to listen to an appeal on behalf of a mission to the perishing millions of a heathen land. Merchants or captains of ships, who have fallen in with him, or become acquainted with his operations and success, speak in terms of unqualified admiration of him and his labours.

It was the intention of Gutzlaff, and that of his fellow-labourer, Mr. Tomlin, to leave Siam, and seek an entrance into China in an unobtrusive manner, and thus to come into contact with the


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