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6. Explain the lines, “then no planets strike,
No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm,
[cious"? What circumstance made the time “ so hallow'd and so gra
“ But look, the morn, in russet mantle clad,
Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill.”
himself, or from Milton.
“As needful in our loves, fitting our duty.”
9. Give a correct paraphrase of the following passage, substi
tuting, in every instance, common expressions for those
which are figurative.
BACON'S NOVUM ORGANUM.
Afternoon Paper. APHORISM 59.
“ But none are so troublesome as the idols of the market, which insinuate themselves into the mind from the association of words and terms. For though men believe that their reason governs words, it also happens that words retort, and reflect their force upon the understanding; whence philosophy and the sciences have been rendered sophistical and unactive. Words are generally imposed according to vulgar conceptions, and divide things by lines that are most apparent to the understanding of the multitude: and when a more acute understanding, or a more careful observation, would remove these lines, to place them according to nature, words cry out and forbid it. And hence it happens that great and serious disputes of learned men frequently terminate about words and terms, which it were better to begin with, according to the prudent method of the Mathematicians and reduce them to order by definitions. But in natural and material things, even these definitions cannot remedy the evil ; because definitions themselves consist of words, and words generate words.” APHORISM 73.
“ But of all the signs of philosophies, none are more certain and noble than those taken from their fruits; for fruits, and the discoveries of works, are as the vouchers and securities for the truth of philosophies.
“ And, therefore, as it is a caution in religion that faith be manifested by works; an admirable rule may be hence derived into philosophy that it be judged by its fruit, and held as vain if it prove barren; and this the more, if, instead of grapes and olives, it produce the thistles and thorns of disputes and altercations.”
1. “For though men believe that their reason governs words, it also happens that words retort and reflect their force upon the understanding."
Explain this sentence, and point out the concealed figure in the latter
part of it.
2. “ Words are generally imposed according to vulgar conceptions, and divide things by lines that are most apparent to the understanding of the multitude.” Explain this, and shew that the opinion is correct. What is the meaning of “ words cry out ?”
3. Does not the objection that “ definitions consist of words, and words generate words,” apply to the terms used in mathematics as well as to those which denote “ natural and material things ?" Or is there any fundamental difference between the two subjects, which makes the objection apply to one of them but not to the other?
4. “ For fruits and the discoveries of works are as the vouchers and securities for the truth of philosophies.” Give some examples in illustration of this truth.
5. What things are meant by the figurative expressions “ olives” and “ thistles and thorns”? Give examples from History of systems of philosophy which, instead of “
and olives” have produced " the thistles and thorns of disputes and altercations.”
6. In one place Bacon says, The sovereignty of man lieth hid in knowledge; wherein many things are reserved which kings with their treasure cannot buy, nor with their force command; their spials and intelligencers can give no news of them, their seamen and discoverers cannot sail where they grow.” Explain this passage.
7. What, according to Bacon, is the true “ end” or object of the sciences ? What other end or object has been proposed by some other writers ? Shew that that other object did not escape Bacon's observation, and that he purposely kept it in the back ground.
8. Mention some of the leading principles of the first book of the Novum Organum.
ODE TO ADVERSITY.
Thy form benign, oh goddess ! wear,
Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid,
Or wak’d to ecstacy the living lyre:
Rich with the spoils of time did ne'er unroll ;
“ Girt with many a baron bold
Sublime their starry fronts they rear;
“ The verse adorn again
Fierce war, and faithful love,
1. “ Thy milder influence impart.”
What two things are compared ? * Thy philosophic train be there."
[losophic train ?” What are those fruits of adversity which the Poet calls “ her phi2. “ Teach me to love and to forgive”
Give the full meaning of this line.
4. “ Rich with the spoils of time.” What are
“the spoils of time” which enrich the “ ample page” of knowledge? Shew that the word “ ample” is well chosen. 5. “ For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey,
This pleasing anxious being e’er resign’d,
“ On some fond breast the parting soul relies,
Some pious drops the closing eye requires;
pleasing anxious being” ?
6. “ In the midst a form divine !
Her eye proclaims her of the Briton line.”
“ the Briton line,” and why does the Bard refer with satisfac-
7. “ What strings symphonious tremble in the air,
What strain of vocal transport round her play!”
allude ? Point out any beauties of expression in these lines.
8. “ The verse adorn again
Fierce war, and faithful love,
clearly mark what particular Poets are meant.
9. “A voice, as of the cherub choir,
Gales from blooming Eden bear.”
choir” and “ Gales from blooming Eden” to the particular Poet