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there any sight that appeared more wonderful in the eyes of Cæsar, or more terrible to others, than this. However, he was himself pursued by fate, which it was not possible that he, who was but a mortal man, should escape; for, as he had shoes * all full of thick and sharp nails as had every one of the other soldiers, so when he ran on the pavement of the temple, he slipped, and fell down upon his back with a very great noise, which was made by his , armour. This made those that were running away to turn back; whereupon those Romans that were in the tow. er of Antonia set up a great shout as they were in fear for the man. But the Jews got about him in crowds, and struck at him with their spears and with their swords on all sides. Now, he received a great many of the strokes of these iron-weapons upon his shield and often attempted to get up again, but was thrown down by those that struck at him; yet did he, as he lay along, stab many of them with his sword. Nor was he soon killed, as being covered with his helmet and his breast-plate in all those parts of his body where he might be mortally wounded; he also pulled his neck close to his body, till all his other limbs were shattered, and nobody durst come to defend him, and then he yielded to his fate. Now, Cæsar was deeply affected on account of this man of so great fortitude, and especially as he was killed in the sight of so many people; he was desirous himself to come to his assistance, but the place would not give him leave, while such as could have done it, were too much terrified to attempt it. Thus, when Julian had struggled with death a great while, and had let but few of those that had given him his mortal wound go off unhurt, he had at last his throat cut, though not without some difficulty, and left behind him a very great fame, not only among the Romans and with Cæsar himself, but among his enemies also ; then did the Jews catch up his dead body, and put the Romans to fight again, and shut them up in the tower of Antonia. Now, those that most signalized themselves, and fought most zealousy in this battle of the Jewish side, were one Alexas and Gyphtheus of John's party, and of Simon's party were Malachias, and Judas the son of Merto, and James the son of Sosas, the commander of the Idumeans; and of the Zealots, two brethren, Simon and Judas, the sons of Jairus.

* No wonder that this Julian, who had so many nails in his shoes, slipped upon the pavement of the temple, which was smooth, and laid' with marble of different colours.


How Titus gave orders to demolish the tower of Antonia, and then

persuaded Josephus to exhort the Jews again [to a surrender.)

81. And now Titus gave order to his soldiers that were with him to dig up the foundations of the tower of Antonia, and make him a ready passage for his army to come up; while he himself had Josephus brought to him, (for he had been informed that on that very day, which was the seventeenth * day of Panemus, [Tamuz,] the sacrifice called the daily sacrifice had failed, and had not been offered to God, for want of men to offer it, and that the people were greviously troubled at it) and commanded him to say the same things to John that he had said before, That, “ if he had any ma“ licious inclination for fighting, he might come out with as “ many of his men as he pleased, in order to fight, without “ the danger of destroying either his city or temple; but " that he desired he would not defile the temple, nor there6 by offend against God. That he might, if he pleased, 6 offer the sacrifices which were now discontinued, by any 66 of the Jews whom he should pitch upon.” Upon this, Josephus stood in such a place where he might be heard, not by John only, but by many more, and then declared to them what Cæsar had given him in charge, and this in the Hebrew language.t So he earnestly prayed them, “To “ spare their own city, and to prevent that fire which “ was just ready to seize upon the temple, and to of. “ fer their usual sacrifices to God therein.” At these words of his a great sadness and silence were ohserved among the people. But the tyrant himself cast many reproaches upon Josephus, with imprecations besides ; and at last added this withal “That he did never fear the taking c of the city, because it was God's own city.” In answer to which, Josephus said thus with a loud voice, “ To be sure “ thou hast kept this city wonderful pure for God's sake; " the temple also continues entirely unpoluted ! Nor hast 65 thou been guilty of any impiety against him for whose as66 sistance thou hopest! He still receives his accustomed 56 sacrifices ! Vile wretch that thou art! If a :y one should “ deprive thee of thy daily food, thou wouldst esteem him 66 to be an enemy to thee; but thou hojest to have that God 5 for thy supporter in this war, whom thou hast deprived 66 of his everlasting worship : and thou imputest those sins “to the Romans, who, to this very time, take care to have 66 our laws observed, and almost compel these sacrifices to “be still offered to God, which have by thy means been 6 intermitted. Who is there that can avoid groans and la“mentations, at the amazing change that is made in this - city ? since very foreigners and enemies do now correct " that impiety which thou hast occasioned ; while thou who “art a Jew, and wast educated in our tws, art become a "greater enemy to them than the others. But still, John, “it is never dishonorable to repent, and amend what hath s been done amiss even at the last extremity. Thou hast an “ instance before thee in Jechonial, * the king of the Jews, .6if thou hast a mind to save the city, who, when the

* This was a remarkable day indeed, the 17th Panemus, l'agruz A. D. 70, when, according to Daniel's prediction, 606 years before, the Romaps, in half a week caused the sacrifice and oblation to cease, Dan. ix. 27. For, from the month of February, A. D. 66, about which time Vespasiun entered on this war, to this very time was just three years and a half; see Bp. Lloyd's Tables of Chronology, published by Mr. Marshall, on this year. Nor is it to be omitted what very pearly confirms this duration of the war, that four years before the war began, was somewhat above seven years five months before the destruction of Jerusalem, ch. 5.83.

+ The saine that in the New Testament is always so called, and was then thic coinmon language of the Jews in Judea, which was the Syriac dialect.

“ king of Babylon made war against him, did, of his own “accord, go out of this city before it was taken, and did “ undergo a voluntary captivity, with his family, that the “sanctuary might not be delivered up to the enemy, and “that he might not see the house of God set on fire; on “ which account he is celebrated among all the Jews, “ in their sacred memorials, and his memory is become im. 56 mortal, and will be conveyed fresh down to our posterity “ through all ages. This, John, is an excellent example “ in such a time of danger ; and I dare venture te promise, “ that the Romans shall still forgive thee. And take no“ tice, that I who make this exhortation to thee, am one “ of thine own nation; I, who am a Jew, do make this “ promise to thee. And it will become thee to consider

* Our present copies of the Old Testament want this encomium upon kios Jechopiah or Jehoiachim, which it seems was in Josephus's copy.

“ who I am that give thee this counsel, and whence I am * derived: for while I am alive I shall never be in such “ slavery, as to forego my own kindred, or forget the laws " of our forefathers. Thou hast indignation at me again and “makest a clamour at me and reproachest me; indeed I can“not deny but I am worthy of worse treatment than all this 66 amounts to, because, in opposition to fate I make this “ kind invitation to thee, and endeavour to force deliver“ance upon those whom God hath condemned. And who " is there that does not know what the writings of the an“ cient prophets contain in them ? and particularly that ora“ cle * which is just now going to be fulfilled upon this « miserable city ? For they foretold that this city should 6 be then taken, when somebody shall begin the slaughter “ of his own countrymen. And, are not both the city and “ the entire temple now full of the dead bodies of your coun" trymen ? It is God, † therefore, it is God himself who “ is bringing on this fire to purge that city and temple by “ means of the Romans, and is going to pluck up this city, so which is full of your pollutions."

2. As Josephus spake these words, with groans and tears in his eyes, his voice was intercepted hy sobs. However, the Romans could not but pity the affliction he was upder, and wonder at his conduct. But, for John, and those that were with him, they were but the raore exasperated against the Romans on this account, and were desirous to get Josephus also into their power: yet did that discourse influence a great many of the better sort ; and truly some of them were so afraid of the guards set by the seditious, that they tarried where they were, but still were satisfied that both they and their city were doomed to destruction. Some also there were, who, watching a proper opportunity, when they might quietly get away fled to the Romans, of whom were the high-priests Joseph and Jesus, and of the sons of high-priests three, whose father was Ishmael, who was beheaded in Cyrene, and four

* Of this oracle, see the note on B. iv. ch. vi. $3

+ Josephus, both here and in many places elsewhere, speaks so, that it is most evident he was fully satisfied, that God was on the Romans' side, and made use of them now for the destruction of that wicked nation of the Jews, which was for certain, the true state of this matter, as the prophet Daniel first, and our Saviour himself afterwards, had clearly foretold. See Lit, Accompl. of Proph, p, 64, &c.

sons of Matthias, as also one son of the other Matthias, who ranaway * after his father's death, whose father was slain by Simon, the son of Gioras, with three of his sons, as I have already related ; many also of the other nobility went over to the Romans together with the high-priests. Now Cæsar not only received these men very kindly in other respects, but, knowing they would not willingly live after the eustoms of other nations, he sent them to Gophna, and desired them to remain there for the present, and told them, that when he was gotten clear of this war, he would restore each of them to their possessions again: so they cheerfully retired to that small city which was allotted theni, without fear of any danger. But as they did not appear, the seditious gave out again, that these deserters were slain by the Romans, which was done in order to deter the rest from running away, by fear of the like treatment. This trick of theirs succeeded now for a while as did the like trick before ; for the rest were hereby deterred from deserting by fear of the like treatment.

3. However, when Titus had recalled those men from Gophna, he gave orders that they should go round the wall together with Josephus, and shew themselve to the people; upon which a great many fled to the Romans. These men also got in a great number together, and stood before the Romans, and besought the seditious, with groans, and tears in their eyes, in the first place, to receive the Romans entirely into the city, and save that their own place of residence again ; but that, if they would not agree to such a proposal, they would at least depart out of the temple, and saye the holy house for their own use; for that the Romans would not venture to set the sanctuary on fire, but under the most pressing necessity. Yet did the seditious still more and more contradict them; and while they cast loud and bitter reproaches upon these deserters, they also set their engines for throwing of darts, and Javelins, and stones, upon the sacred gates of the temple, at due distances from one another, insomuch, that all the space round about, within the temple, might be compared to a burying

* Josephus had before told us, B. v. ch. xiii $ 1. vol. vi. that this fourtle son of Matthias rana way to the Romans before his father's and brethren's slaughter, and not after it, as here. The former account is, in all probability, the truest; for had not that fourth son escaped before the others were caught and put to death, he had been caught and put to death with them. This last account therefore looks like an instance of a small inadvertence of Josephus in the place before us:

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