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LIST OF THE CARTOUCHES

OF THE PRINCIPAL

EGYPTIAN KINGS.

means

se Ri

The oval o in which a name of a royal person is written, is called cartouche. The first oval contains the prenomen, and the second the name; these are quite distinct from his titles. 1163 suten net, placed before the prenomen,

“ King of the North and South,” and 3.0 means “Son of the Sun.” Other common titles are neb taui, “lord of two lands," Horus, I

“the golden Horus," 12 lord of diadems," "mighty bull," 18“ beautiful god," etc., etc. its origin in 5, or , or per āa, “great house." In the early dynasties kings' names were very simple in form, and consisted

often of the prenomen only. In addition to the pre

and king often had what is termed a “banner" name, which was written in a rectangular enclosure; 1.8. :

Heru ka next ur peḥ peḥ, “Horus, mighty bull, great of valour," formed the “banner"

“ banner" name of

finds פַּרְעה The title Pharaoh

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nomen

name

a

AJAD

Amenophis II.;

90

āa xeperu was

978) Amen

his prenomen; and
hetep neter heq Annu, “ Amenophis, god, prince of

Heliopolis," was his name. Each prenomen and name had a meaning, but many of these are very difficult to translate.

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* Manetho's grouping of the kings into dynasties is only used here for convenience ; the ancient Egyptians had no such division.

+ Though O Rā is generally placed first in the cartouche, it is generally to be read last.

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28.

xufu.
(Cheops.)

29.

O 8 sa

vā-f-Rā. (Chephren.)

30.

ل 0

Men-kau-Rā. (Mycerinus.)

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DYNASTIES VII. AND VIII., FROM MEMPHIS; DYNASTIES

IX. AND X., FROM HERACLEOPOLIS, B.C. 3100.

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