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the making of funeral offerings, and the performance of religious ceremonies on behalf of the dead by the STEM priest. On the north wall, in tabular form, are all the vignettes save one of the CXLIVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, and on the south wall is the Judgment Scene. Over the door inside is cut in large ietters “P.C. Letorzec, 1820," i.e., the name of Calliaud's fellow traveller.

The king for whom this pyramid was built was a priest of Osiris, and he probably lived during the early part of the Ptolemaic Period.

No. 6. Pyramid of Queen Amon-Shipelta (?).

设局 ် nearly 80 feet high. It was pulled down by Ferlini, an Italian, who declared that he found in a chamber near the top the collection of jewellery, one portion of which was purchased by the Berlin Museum, and the other by the Antiquarium at Munich. Half way down, in the middle of the pyramid, he stated that he also found two bronze vessels, with handles, of very fine workmanship. A portion of the chapel, with a vaulted roof, still remains, and on the walls there exist still reliefs in which the queen who had the pyramid built, is seen wearing a number of elaborate ornaments of curious and interesting workmanship. On the face of the pylon of the chapel may still be traced figures of the queen in the act of spearing her enemies.

No. 7. Pyramid of Murtek

who was

1 surnamed " Alu-Amen, the ever-living, beloved of Isis. the angle-stones of the tenth layer from the ground are cut the two eyes of Horus, each of which looks toward the chapel

The walls of the chapel are ornamented with vignettes and texts from the Saite, or Ptolemaic, Recension of the Book of the Dead.

No. 8. A large, well-built pyramid; the chapel is buried under the stones, sand, etc., which have fallen from its top.

No. 9. A large pyramid, the east side of which is in a state of collapse. The chapel is built of massive stones, but contains neither inscriptions nor reliefs. It is probable that the sepulchral chamber beneath the pyramid was never occupied.

No. 10. The pyramid which stood here was removed in ancient days. Portions of the chapel still remain, and from these we see that its walls were ornamented with the Jucigment Scene from the Book of the Dead, the weighing of the heart, and representations of funeral ceremonies.

No. II. This is the largest sepulchral monument on the Island of Meroë. The pyramid was about 80 feet high, and is about 65 feet square, and it is formed of well-cut stones, The buildings in front of it, which consisted, when complete of a fore-court, a pylon, a hall, and a chapel, were about 80 feet long, so that the total length of the monument was nearly 150 feet. In 1903 the hall and the greater part of the chapel were cleared out by Captain Lewin, R.F.A., Captain Drake, R.F.A., and myself, and the rest of the chapel was emptied in 1905 by Mr. J. W. Crowfoot and myself. In the latter year the sculptures from the west wall of the chapel, and other objects were found, and were taken to Kharțûm. The north and south walls of the chapel were removed stone by stone, the former being sent by Sir Reginald Wingate's orders to Khartům, and the latter to the British Museum, where it has been built up at the south end of the Egyptian Gallery. The reliefs on both the north and south walls of the chapel are very elaborate, and are the finest examples of Meroïtic funeral sculpture known.

Nos. 12 and 13. The chapels of these pyramids have not been cleared out.

No. 14. A passage was driven through this pyramid from the east to the west side, and a shaft cut through it from the top to the bottom, with the view of proving the impossibility of sepulchral chambers existing in the pyramids of Meroë as those who accepted Ferlini's statements thought. In 1903 we found the pit which led to the short corridor by which the deceased was taken into the sepulchral chamber beneath the pyramid.

No. 15. The remains of this pyramid were removed in 1903 to test the truth of the assertion that the sepulchral chamber was placed sometimes behind the chapel. No such chamber was found here, and the deceased was buried below his pyramid, as was always the case. When clearing out the shaft under the remains of the chapel, we found pieces of a blue-glazed altar inscribed in a Meroitic character; these are now in the Museum at Kharțûm.

No. 16. This pyramid is unlike any other of the group, for the chapel is within the pyramid itself, its roof being sormed by the stones of the sides of the pyramid, which project one over the other and so make the enclosed space vault-shaped.

No. 17. Pyramid of a Meroïtic king, of a late period,

may fwhose prenomen was Neb-Maāt-Rá (ON =)

The western end of the

south wall, on which is a good representation of the king, wherefrom it is clear that he was of Negro origin, was removed to Berlin by Lepsius.

No. 18. An important and interesting ruin of the pyramid of King Amen-Khetashen (?)

The eastern face, which was standing in 1905, is nearly 40 fert high, and well-cut figures of the king are to be seen on eachi wing of the pylon, The Meroïtic inscription which cailliaud

saw on the “face principal ” of the building was removed to Berlin by Lepsius.

No. 19. Pyramid of king Tirikonlatu (?) =63


reliefs prove that its builder was a Negro, and that he slew his enemies in the traditional manner.

No. 20. A well-built pyramid. Its shaft was excavated in 1903, and the burial place of the deceased found.

No. 21. A pyramid of little interest. A pole projects from the platform on the top; it was probably driven through it by searchers after the sepulchral chamber who thought it was situated at the top of the pyramid. No. 22. Pyramid of Åmen-netek (mamma whose prenomen

Kheper - ka


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on an altar which Lepsius removed from Wâd Bâ Nagaa to Berlin.

Nos. 23-26. These pyramids were excavated in 1903.
No. 27. Pyramid of a Meroïtic king, of a late date,




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Nos. 28-30. Ruined pyramids.
No. 32. Pyramid of a queen; her name is wanting.
Nos. 33-36. Ruined pyramids.

Nos. 37-39. (Lepsius' numbers). Already described (Nos. 16-18).

Nos. 40-43. Small pyramids excavated in 1903.

B. Southern Group. These pyramids lie to the south-east of the northem group.

No. 1. Ruined pyramid. Many of its stones were used in the construction of the other pyramids.

No. 2. The chapel of this pyramid was undecorated with reliefs and is in ruins.

No. 3. This pyramid was removed in ancient days, and its chapel is in ruins.

No. 4. Pyramid of Queen Kenreth Kenrethren 311 ; her other name was Serren 517). Other names or titles found in the text are Perui Si and Ka-nefert (211-). In the reliefs we see the gods Tat, Thoth, Horus, Anubis Khnemu, and Qeb taking part in the funeral ceremonies of

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the queen.

No. 5.

Pyramid of Queen

Asru - meri - Amen

whose prenomen was Nefer - ankhåb-Rasto). There are few pyramids in the Sidin in which the ancient spirit and character of Egyptian art are so well preserved.

No. 6. Pyramid of İrq-neb. Amen whose prenomen was Khnem-åb-Ra( 80 )

No. 7. This pyramid and its chapel are partially ruined.

No. 8. The chapel of this pyramid was pulled down tt make room for No. 9.

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