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1341. Al-Mansûr Abû Bakr. 1346. Al-Ashraf Ķûjûk. 1342. An-Nasir Ahmad. 1 342. Aş-Şâliḥ Ismâ'il. 1345. Al-Kâmil Sha'bân. 1346. Al-Mûzaffar Hâggi. 1347. An-Nasir Hasan. In his reign the plague attacked Egypt, and 10,000

0 20,000 people died in Cairo in one day. 1351. As-Salih Salih. 1354. An-Naşir Hasan (second reign). 1361. Al-Manşûr Muḥammad. 1363. Al-Ashraf Sha'bân. 1376. Al-Mansûr 'Ali. 1381. As-Salih Haggi. He was deposed in 1382 by

Barķūķ, who founded the dynasty of the Burgi

or Circassian Mamlûks. 1389. As-Salih Haggi (second reign).




The Burgi Sultans were all Circassians, with the exception of two, Khushķadam and Timûrbughâ, who were of Greek origin.

The Circassian Mamlûks obtained the name of " Burgite," because the founders of their dynasty were quartered in the “ Burg," or Citadel. 1382. Az-Zahir Barķūķ. He died in 1399. 1399. Farag. He was executed in 1412, and his body

cast on a dung-hear.



1405. 'Abd al-'Aziz. 1405. Farag (second period of rule). 1412. Al-Musta'in. 1412. Al-Mu'ayyad. 1421. Ahmad. 1421. Sayf-ad-din Ţaţar. 1421. As-Salih Muhammad. 1.422. Bars-Bey, captured Cyprus in 1426; he died in

1438. 1438. Al-Aziz Yûsuf. 1438. Gakmak persecuted the Jews and Christians; he

died in 1453, aged 80. 1453. 'Othmân was deposed after a rule of six weeks. 1453 Sêyf ad-Din înál. 1461. Al-Mu'ayyad Ahmad abdicated. 1461. Khûshkadam, the Greek, abdicated. 1467. Yel-Bey, called the "madman," was deposed after

a rule of two months. 1467. Timûrburghâ, a learned man, who was deposed,

but allowed to live at Damietta. 1468. Ķâ'it Bey built two mosques, and restored many

monuments. The plague visited Egypt in 1492, and 12,000 people died in one day in Cairo.

Ķâ’it-Bey died in 1496. 1496. An-Nasir Muhammad. 1498. Ķansûh. 1500. Ganbalat. 1501. Tûman Bey. 1501. Kansûh al-Ghûrî was killed at the battle of

Aleppo, August 24th, 1516.


1516 Al-Ashraf Tûman-Bey was hanged on April

14th, 1517, when the Turks occupied Cairo. The last Abbâsid Khalifa of Egypt, Mutawakkil, died in 1538, having bequeathed his title and rights to the Sultan of Turkey. Thus Egypt became a province of the Turkish Empire.


1517. Tùmân Bey is deposed by Selim I. of Constantin

ople, and Egypt becomes a Turkish Pashalik. Soon after his conquest of Egypt, Selim divided the country into twenty-four provinces, over each of which he appointed a local governor ; these governors were placed in subjection to a Pâsha, who, with the help of a council of seven Turkish officials, ruled the country. One of the twenty-four governors was elected to the important office of "Shekh al-balad," or governor of the metropolis, a post which was greatly coveted by his colleagues when they saw what frequent opportunities were enjoyed by him of "squeezing" the natives, and of making himself a rich man. This system worked well for a time, but as the power of Turkey declined, so the power of her nominees the Páshâs of Egyp declined, and at length the twenty-four local governors became the actual rulers of Egypt, for the revenues of the country were in their hands, and they paid the Turkish Pâshâ his salary. Selîm sent one body of troops up the Nile to occupy the Northern Sûdân, and these took possession of the country so far south as Gebel Barkal. They built fortresses at Ibrim, Sarras, Khandak, Dongola, and


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Merawi, and on several islands in the Nile, e.g., 1517. Sâî, and their descendants ruled the country until

it was conquered by Muhammad ‘Ali. Selîm sent
another body of soldiers to seize the Eastern
Sûdân, and these entered the country by way
of Sawâkin and Maşawa. They marched to
Sennaar, on the Blue Nile, where they found the
newly established Fûng Kingdom. The Fùngs
succeeded in making the Turks think they were
Arabs and good Muslims, whereupon Selim's
soldiers withdrew. Subsequently a quarrel broke
out between the Turks of the Northern Südân and
the Fûngs, and the latter marched an army to a
place near Khandak. In the fierce fight which
followed, the Turks were victorious, and the Fûngs
fled, and did not again attempt to rule the

Northern Sûdân.
1771. 'Ali Bey, a slave, obtains great power in Egypt. He

was accused of entering into a conspiracy against
the Sulțân at Constantinople, and a messenger was
sent to Egypt to bring back 'Ali Bey's head. 'Ali

caught and slew the messenger, and having called 1772. his colleagues together, drove out the Pâsâ and

declared Egypt independent He was poisoned
by Muḥammad abû-Dhabab, a man on whom

he had showered favours.
1773. Isma'il, Ibrahim, and Murad strive for the

mastery over Egypt. When Murâd became ruler, a

Turkish army invaded Egypt and seized Cairo, 1790. and attempted to follow the rebel (Murâd) into

Upper Egypt


FRENCH RULE IN EGYPT. 1798. Napoleon Bonaparte lands near Alexandria with

an army of 36,000 men (July 1); storming of Alexandria (July 5); Murâd meets the French in battle at Embâbeh, opposite Cairo, with 60,000 men, but is beaten, and about 15,000 of his men are killed. This fight is commonly called the Battle of the Pyramids. A few days later

Nelson destroyed the French fleet in Abuķir Bay. 1799. Destruction of the Turkish army by the French at

Abukir. 1800. Sir Sydney Smith signs a treaty at Al-'Arish granting

General Kléber's army permission to leave Egypt (February 24), but as he had to admit later that he had exceeded his powers, and that the British Government demanded the surrender of the whole French army as prisoners of war, Gen. Kleber attacked the Turks at the village of Matariyah, and is said to have routed 70,000 men, an army six times as large as his own. A few months later Kléber was assassinated, and General Menou became commander-in-chief of the French army

in Egypt. 1801. Sir Ralph Abercromby lands at Abuķir Bay with

17,000 men (March 8); battle of Alexandria and defeat of the French (March 21); the French capitulate at Cairo (June 27); the French capitulate at Alexandria (August 30); evacuation of

Egypt by the French (September). 1803. England restores Egypt to the Turks. As soon as

the English left Egypt, severe conflicts took place between two Turkish parties in the country, the Albanians and the Ghuzz; to the former belonged Muḥammad Ali.

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