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WHoever wishes to become acquainted with the history of the times and countries of which Herodotus wrote, will read his writings either in the original, or some translation which may be found to represent his meaning with the greatest fidelity. Those who wish to acquire a knowledge of the author himself, other than that which they may glean from incidental remarks in his history, will have recourse to some one of the authors who have given an account of his life and writings. These are so numerous, and so easy of access, that it seems unnecessary, by adding to their number, to increase the bulk of the present volume. It will be sufficient to inform the student in what respect the present translation professes to differ from those which have preceded it. Five have, at intervals, made their appearance. The first was that by Beloe, which, though flowing and easy in style, was rather a translation from an indifferent French version than from the original Greek. The second, by Littlebury, was a poor rendering from a bad Latin version. The third was a revision of Littlebury's translation, bearing the appearance of having been made by one, who, though he understood his author, contented himself with merely removing Littlebury's grosser faults, without attempting to correct him uniformly and throughout. The fourth and most elegant version, was that by Mr. Isaac Taylor; which, however, has met with less notice than its merit deserves, probably owing to the circumstance, that the usually received division by chapters has been departed from, whereby the facility of reference has been much diminished, and also because, in too many instances, the translator has sacrificed the meaning of his author to purity of thought or elegance of diction. The last English version was that by Laurent, in making which the translator laboured under the twofold disadvantage of being an inaccurate Greek scholar, and a far worse English one. Nor can the present translator hope to be free from some defect, equal perhaps in extent to those which he has pointed out in his predecessors. His object, however, has been to keep as closely to the sense of his author as the idioms of the two languages would allow. He has adopted throughout the readings of Baehr, and, except in some few instances, which are pointed out in the notes, his interpretation also. l

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THIs is a publication of the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, in order that the actions of men may not the effaced by time, nor the great and wondrous deeds displayeit, both by Greeks and barbarians' deprived of renown :-dii and amongst the rest, for what cause they waged war updad each other. - she 1. The learned among the Persians assert that the Phos nicians were the original authors of the quarrel; for that. they having migrated from that which is called the Red Sea to the Mediterranean,” and having settled in the country which they now inhabit, forthwith applied themselves to dis-n tant voyages; and that having exported Egyptian and Assy-C rian merchandise, they touched at other places, and also ay Argos. Now Argos at that period in every respect surpasse, . all those states which are now comprehended under the gene ral appellation of Greece.” They say, that on their arrivrly at Argos, the Phoenicians exposed their merchandise to sala, and that on the fifth or sixth day after their arrival, and whe

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* By barbarians the Greeks meant all who were not sprung from * themselves, all foreigners.

* The Phoenicians passed over land (see b. VII. c. 89) from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, which in the text and in other Grecian writers is called “this sea.”

* The region known by the name of Hellas or Greece, in the time of Herodotus, was, previous to the Trojan war, and indeed long afterwards, only discriminated by the names of its different inhabitants. Homer speaks of the Danaans, Argives, Achaians, &c., but never gives these people the general name of Greeks,—Larcher.


poor rery had almost disposed of their cargo, a great number so

5 somen came down to the sea-shore, and among them to. **Y*ong's daughter, whose name, as the Greeks also say, was I. ance Aaughter of Inachus. They add, that while these wom. und. Yvo standing near the stern of the vessel, and were bargail”

= ng for such things as most pleased them, the Phoenicia id

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aving exhorted one another, made an attack upon them.” to CU _and that most of the women escaped, but that Io, with so others, was seized: and that they, having hurried them & l and +5oard, set sail for Egypt. 2. Thus the Persians say that “. whic]...vent to Egypt, not agreeing herein with the Phoenicians; at." - hat this was the beginning of wrongs. After this, that certa" dese" Brecians, (for they are unable to tell their name,) having touch." usual- d at Tyre in Phoenicia, carried off the king's daughter Europo" .nese must have been Cretans. Thus far they say that they hio from > aly retaliated;' but that after this the Greeks were guilty, dimiri”.e second provocation; for that having sailed down iño - transle.* of war" to Æa, a city of Colchis on the river Phaso. ... hen they had accomplished the more immediate object :" puri"Yeir expedition, they carried off the king's daughter Medeo lish void that the king of Colchis, having despatched a herald o Greece, demanded satisfaction for the rape, and the restitutio **of the princess; but the Greeks replied, that as they of Aso being bad not given any satisfaction for the rape of Io, neith. - would they give any to them.) 3. They say too, that in tho lish - - * -. r - R econd generation after this, Alexander the son of Priat, free laving heard of these events, was desirous of obtaining" whichi'e from Greece by means of violence, being fully pé. uaded that he should not have to give satisfaction, for the objectae Greeks had not done so. When therefore he had carrif sense if Helen, they say, that the Greeks immediately sent mé ,2ngers to demand her back again, and require satisfactio wouls. the rape; but that they, when they brought forwa" of 7 these demands, objected to them the rape of Medea ; “th they who had not themselves given satisfaction, nor made 2 ` are j.n demanded, now wished others to give it to themselves 4. Thus far then they say that there had only been raki from each other ; but that after this the Greeks were great

* Literally, “had only done like for like.”

* “In a long vessel.” The long vessels were vessels of war; the rou ! vessels, merchantmen and transports.

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to blame, for that they levied war against Asia before the

Asiatics did upon Europe. Now, to carry off women by violence the Persians think is the act of wicked men, but to trouple oneself about avenging them when so carried off is the ct of foolish ones; and to pay no regard to them when caried off, of wise men :(för that it is clear, that if they had not Teen willing, they could not have been carried off.) Accordagly the Persians say, that they of Asia made no account of yomen that were carried off; but that the Greeks for the e of a Lacedaemonian woman assembled a mighty fleet, and en having come to Asia overthrew the empire of Priam. That from this évent they had always considered the Greeks ...}, their enemies: for the Persians claim Asia and the baro rous nations that inhabit it, as their own, and consider jurope and the people of Greece as totally distinct. ty 5. Such is the Persian account ; and to the capture of #Troy they ascribe the commencement of their enmity to the .#reeks. As relates to Io, the Phoenicians do not agree with his account of the Persians: for they affirm that they did ...]ot use violence to carry her into Egypt; but that she had i tonnexion at Argos with the master of a vessel, and when she jound herself pregnant, she, through dread of her parents, "Afoluntarily sailed away with the Phoenicians, to avoid detecon. Such then: are the accounts of the Persians and Phoeicians: I, however, am not going to inquire whether the ts were so or not ; but having pointed out the person whom myself know to have been the first guilty of injustice toards the Greeks, I will then proceed with my history, uching as well on the small as the great estates of men : rfor of those that were formerly powerful many have become "...yeak, and some that were powerful in my time were formerly jeak. Knowing therefore the precarious nature of human jrosperity, I shall commemorate both alike. otr 6. Croesus was a Lydian by birth, son of Alyattes, and sovereign of the nations on this side the river Halys. This ..fiver, flowing from the south" between the Syrians' and . Paphlagonians, empties itself northwards into the Euxine *...Sea. This Croesus was the first of the barbarians whom we

* The Halys had two branches, one flowing from the east, the other - som the south : Herodotus speaks only of the southern one. *** Syria was at that time the name of Cappadocia. See I. 72. B 2 *


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