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HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY,

ST. MARTIN'S LANE, LONDON.

4-26 45

INTRODUCTION.

Having for some years felt the insufficiency of the information given by Dragomans to travellers on the Nile, and finding with one or two striking exceptions how limited is their knowledge of facts relating to the history of the antiquities in Upper Egypt, Messrs. Thos. Cook and Son have arranged with Dr. E. A. Wallis Budge to compile the following pages, which they have much pleasure in presenting to every passenger under their Nile arrangements on their Tourist Steamers and Dhahabiyyahs. In this way passengers will no longer be liable to be misled (unintentionally) by Dragomans, but will be able at their leisure to prepare themselves for what they have to see, and thus by an agreeable study add to the interest with which their visits to the various places are made.

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BY

E. A. WALLIS BUDGE, M.A., LITT.D.,

KEEPER OF THE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

NEW EDITION OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.

(Limited to 750 copies.) The Book of the Dead. In three Volumes. Vol. I. The Egyptian

Texts printed in hieroglyphics ; Vol. II. Vocabulary; Vol. III.
Translation. Illustrated by three large coloured facsimiles of sec-
tions of papyri, and eighteen plates in black and white. Demy 8vo.
Price of the complete work £2 ios. Vols. I. and II. (not sold

separately) £i; Vol. III. (may be sold separately) £1 55. net. The Book of the Dead. The papyrus, of Ani, in the British

Museum. With translation and transliteration. 4to. Half

morocco, £ I los. Egyptian Religion. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. net. Egyptian Magic. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. net. Egyptian Language. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. net. The Book of the Dead (Papyri of Hunefer, Anhai, Nu, Queen

Netchemet, Kerâsher, etc.). Folio. £2 1os. First Steps in Egyptian. Demy Svo. 9s. net. An Egyptian Reading Book for Beginners. With a Vocabulary.

Demy 8vo. 155. net. The Dwellers on the Nile. 8vo. 35. The Sarcophagus of Ankhnesneferabra. On texts from the

sarcophagus of this Queen, with translations, vocabulary, etc.

4to. 75. 6d. The Mummy, or Chapters on Egyptian Archæology. 8vo.

125. 6d. Many illustrations. Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in the Harrow School

Museum. Svo. 35. Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in the Fitzwilliam Museum. Cambridge. 8vo.

1os. 6d. The Martyrdom and Miracles of St. George of Cappadocia. Coptic texts with English translation.

Ios. 6d. St. Michael the Archangel. Three Encomiums in the Coptic texts,

with translations. Imperial Svo. 155. net. The Earliest-known Coptic Psalter. The text in the dialect of

Upper Egypt, edited from the Unique Papyrus Codex Oriental 5000 in the British Museum. Imperial 8vo. 155.

The Edition is strictly limited to 350 copies.

LONDON: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO., LTD.,

Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road.

PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH

EDITION.

The short descriptions of the principal Egyptian monuments on each side of the Nile between Cairo and Kharțům, printed in the following pages, are not in any way intended to form a “ Guide to Egypt." They are drawn up for the use of those travellers who have a very few weeks to spend in Egypt, and who wish to carry away from that country some of the more important facts connected with the fast-perishing remains of one of the most interesting and ancient civilizations that has been developed on the face of the earth. The existing guide books are too full, and they contain too many details for such travellers. Experience has shown that the greater number of travellers in Egypt are more interested in the remains and civilization of the ancient Egyptians than in the history of Egypt under the rule of the Persians, Ptolemies, Romans, Arabs, and Turks. It is for this reason that no attempt has been made to describe, otherwise than in the briefest manner possible, its history under these foreign rulers, and only such facts connected with them as are absolutely necessary for a right understanding of its monuments have been inserted. In addition to such descriptions, a few chapters have been added on the history of the country during the rule of the Pharaohs, and on its people, and their buildings, their religion, and their methods of writing. The lists of hieroglyphic characters and their phonetic values, printed on pp. 133-139, will, it is hoped, be useful to those who may wish to spell out the royal names on tombs, and temples, and the commoner words which occur in the inscriptions.

In transcribing Arabic names of places, the system in general use throughout Europe has been employed, but well-known names like “Cairo,” “ Luxor,” etc., have not been altered. Similarly, the ordinary wellknown forms of Egyptian proper names such as “Rameses,” “Amenophis,” “Hophra," etc., have been used in preference to the more correct transcriptions, “Rā-messu,” “ Amen-ḥetep,” and “ Uah-ab-Rā."

The dates assigned to the Egyptian kings are those of the late Dr. Heinrich Brugsch, who based his calculations on the assumption that the average duration of a generation was thirty-three years. Hence it will be readily understood that the date assigned to Rameses II. (B.C. 1333), for instance, is only approximately correct. In recent years many attempts have been made to reduce the length of the historic period of Egypt, and to prove that the reigns of the historic kings of Egypt were considerably antedated by the early Egyptologists. Recent excavations, however, have shown that the historical Egyptians and their immediate ancestors have occupied the Nile Valley

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