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TO THE FIFTH EDITION.
In this work, the Author has given some of the results of his study and practice, in the department of Mental and Vocal Philosophy, for the last fifteen years. Persons, who are familiar with the subjects discussed, can see how much he is indebted to books, and how much to investigation and experience. Whatever is GOOD and TRUE in it, belongs to ALL; for it is from ABOVE. If there be anything false and evil, the Author holds himself responsible for it. His endeavor has been, to furnish a book, which may be useful to every one. He believes that a greater variety will be found in this, than in any other work on the subject;-a variety, too, which will induce deep and careful thinking, and right feeling; and which tends directly, to the end in view, to wit: the development and application, of those principles of MIND and VOICE, which the Author has been engaged in practicing and teaching, in our principal towns and cities, and Institutions of Learning: notices of which may be seen among the accompanying testimonials.
This work is an abridgment of what the Author has written, in three connected, yet separate volumes, as yet unpublished, embracing the subjects of Body and Mind, their natures, relations, and destinies: the work, next in order, is PHYSIOLOGY and PSYCHOLOGY, which, it is expected, will be published the coming year.
One reason why no more quotations are made from the Bible is, that the SACRED VOLUME is nearly ready for the press,-prepared with such a notation as will aid the reader, to pronounce and emphasize it, at sight-it being both a Pronouncing and Rhetorical Bible: it was commenced several years ago, at the request of clergymen and others, who have attended the Author's Biblical Readings and Recitations; and would probably have been laid before the public before this, but for the destruction of a portion of it by fire.
The following work is now "cast upon the waters," in a stereotyped form, not likely soon to be changed. An affectionate Teacher's kindest regards to his Pupils, and respects to a candid and generous public.
NEW YORK, 1845.
the body its workmanship. Here is a good representation of
1. Every ART, and SCIENCE, has its Externals, | up the Body, with the materials, furnished by the and its Internals, its Generals and Particulars; external world. The Soul is the architect, and which must be understood Analytically, and Synthetically, if we would practice either successfully. The Internals of Elocution, are Thoughts and Feelings, and its Externals comprise all that is addressed to our five senses: its Generals are Mind and Body, with their various Languages, or modes of manifestation. Comparatively, Language is the Tune, Body-the Instrument, and Mind-the Performer: hence, the necessity of becoming acquainted, theoretically and practically, with their NATURES, RELATIONS and USES.
2. As the subjects of MIND and LANGUAGE, are partially unfolded in the following work, in this part, something must be said of the BODY, the harp of ten thousand strings: particularly in regard to structure, position, and the organs to be used for the production and modification of sounds, in Speech and Song: also of Gestures, or Actions; illustrated by appropriate Engravings, which may be imitated by the Pupil, for the purpose of bringing the Body into subjection to the Mind; without, however, any reference to specific Recitations,-lest he should become artificial, instead of natural.
3. The more we contemplate MAN, the more we see and feel the truth, that he is a MICROCOSM indeed; a minature-world,-an abstract of creation, an epitome of the universe,-a finite representation of the INFINITE DEITY! Well saith the heathen motto, "KNOW THYSELF!" and the poet
"THE PROPER STUDY OF MANKIND-IS MAN." And it may truly be said, that there is nothing in the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, that cannot be found, essentially, in the human body; and nothing in the world of Mind, that is not shadowed forth in his spiritual nature: hence, the grandeur, the magnificence of our subjects, and our objects.
4. The three grand essentials of the Body proper, are the Osseus, or bony system, which fixes its form, and gives it stability: the Muscular, or fleshy system, which is designed to act on the Osseus; and Nervous system, acting on the Muscular: while the Mind, acts on and through the Nervous; receiving its life and power from Him, who is emphatically "THE LIFE:" thus, we can look through Nature, up to Nature's God. Observe, the Analytical course is from outermosts to innermosts, from effects to causes; and the Synthetical progress from innermosts to outermosts; or from causes to effects.
mass, which is a
ly behind the
chords, called trisplanchnic nerves: and at 0, 0, are seen other nerves, with their little brains, or centres, where they come together, forming a line along the spine, from the bottom of the chest, tc the top of the neck. From this large collection of Organic Nerves, others proceed to every part of the system, uniting in smaller centres, and forming ganglions in the palms of the hands, 5. NERVES OF ORGANIC LIFE. Every thing balls of the fingers, &c. Our Astronomical sysmust have a beginning: and nothing is made per- tem is called the Solar System, because the Sun fect at once. Now in the body, there is a cer- is its centre, watching over our planets; so, of tain portion, called Nerves of Organic Life; be- these nervous centres of the grand and smaller cause they are the first formed, and constitute departments of our miniature-universe. Owing the grand medium, through which the soul builds to the intimate connection of these nerves with
7. Here is an excellent representation of the Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respiratory Nerves, constitute the inmosts of the body; also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains, which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of which, are Will and Understanding. The letter c, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is located; and cv, the cerebellum, or little brain, under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the
norizontal black line is: here is the seat of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the seat of the Motive power of the body; and from these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the voluntary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a striking view of the Muscular, or fleshy portions, that form the medium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the bones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfect subjection to the Sou, through thed Mind; so that whatever 18 felt & thought, may be bodied forth to the life. Now let us put these three
9. We now descend to the hard parts of the body, which have the least of life in them. This is a very correct representation of the Osseous system, or the bony parts which may be aptly
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid temple we live in; which is three stories high; viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, the situation and attachment of the different bones of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy between the body and language?
10. ZOOLOGY-(the doctrine or science of life,) is a necessary element of education. Whose curiosity has not been excited by the innumerable living beings, and things, with which we are surrounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their interiors, and see how they are made, and understand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their differences, in many respects, and their similarities in others: they all have essence, form, use. The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral,
is to emancipate the human mind from the dark- | constituting the nutritive function of which living ness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by eviliberty of rational humanity. The things of the dences too plain to be misunderstood: may we have Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power to appreciate them, being assured that all power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; truths are in perfect harmony with each other. and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or grow; they simply exist.
12. Here is a representation of the Human Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
Animals and Plants endure for a time, and under specific forms, by making the external world a part of their own being; i. e. they have the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, and when this outward supply ceases they die, having completed their term of duration : hence, death, to material existences, is a necessary COLL sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they exist so long as external forces do not destroy them: and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapoAnimals and Plants increase by nutrition: sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh by the action of a force, or power, from withbut a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one out. Has not every thing its circle? How inhundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub-teresting must be the history of all things, anistances, are the materials of which our organs mate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their around us, within us, and above us! bulk, and give back to the world what was once its own. Thus, composition and decomposition,
13. If we would have the Mind act on the Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an or