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of the head of a figure, the “heretic king," Amen-ḥetep IV, or Khu-en-Aten, B.C. 1420 (No. 212); the figure of Queen Amenårtās, of the XXVth dynasty, B.C. 700 (No. 232); the seated figures of Khā-em-Uast and his wife (Wall-case 105,

Third Egyptian Room; see Plate XIII); the seated figure of Harua, one of the officials of Amenártās (No. 234); the two figures of officials of the Roman Period (Nos. 269 and 270); and the head of a priestess (see Plate XII).

In the Northern and Southern Egyptian Galleries among the finest examples of large statues may be mentioned the three grey granite statues of Usertsen III, B.C. 2330, each of

which represents the king at a different period of his life (Nos. 158, 159, 160 ; see Plate XXV); the dark granite head of Amen-em-hāt III, of the XIIth dynasty (No. 774; see Plate XXVI); the red granite statue of Sekhemuatch-taui-Rā, a king of the XIIIth dynasty (No. 276, Plate XXVII); the head of Thothmes III, B.C. 1550(No. 360; Plate XXXI); the heads of Amenhetep III, B.C. 1450 (Nos. 416, 417); the white limestone statues of an official and

his wife, of very fine work (No.565); and the granite statue of Isis holding a figure of Osiris between her wings (No. 964). The statues and

portrait figures of the latter part of the XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth dynasties lack the fidelity to nature of those of the Ancient and Middle Empires, and it is clear that

about B.C. 1200 both statues Statue of Isis, holding a figure of Osiris. and. ngures were kept in Dedicated by Shashanq, a high official. stock by funerary masons, Ptolemaïc Period.

who merely added the names [Southern Egyptian Gallery,

Bay 28. No. 061.1 of deceased persons to them

put after they were sold. Under the Saïte kings of the XXVIth dynasty a Renaissance took place, and for a short time painters, sculptors, and scribes modelled their works on examples drawn chiefly from the monuments of the Ancient Empire.

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116

CHAPTER VI.

THE KING AND HIS CHIEF OFFICERS OF STATE AND

SUBJECTS. MILITARY SERVICE.

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The King of Egypt was absolute master of the country, which had been given to him by the gods, and of every man, woman, and child, and of everything in it from one end to the other. He was the son of Heru-ur, i.e., Horus the Great, the oldest of all the gods of Egypt, whose attributes were, at a later period, usurped by Rā, the Sungod, and was declared to be of the very substance and essence of the god. He was believed to be a god, and was worshipped as a god, and his statues and figures were placed among the statues of the gods, and with them received the adoration of men. His word on any subject was final, his authority limitless, in his person he united the intelligence and strength of all beings in heaven and on earth; men lived by his grace only, and at a word from him they were slain. In short, the Egyptians were serfs and bondmen of the king, the counterpart, image and symbol of the god of heaven.

He possessed five great names or titles: 1. A Horus name, as the descendant of Horus. 2. A Nebti name, as representative of Nekhebit and Uatchit, the great goddesses of the South and North. 3. A Horus of gold name. The blood of the sun-god was supposed to be made of gold, and as the divine blood ran in the king's veins, a "name of gold ” was given to him. 4. A Suten Båt name, as king of the South (Suten) and King of the North (Bat). 5. A Son of Rā name, or personal name of the king. Thus, the five names of Usertsen III were :

Horus name, NETER KHEPERU. This was placed it in a serekh thus :

The Horus name is sometimes called the “banner name”; the serekh, however, is not a banner, but a representation of a building of a funerary character.

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Nebti name, NETER MESTU
Horus of gold name, ANKH KHEPER ATO.
Suten Båt name, KuĀ-KAU-RA LOOB www).
Son of Rā name, USERTSEN
The oval in which the fourth and fifth names are placed,

), is called in Egyptian Shennu, and is commonly known as the “cartouche." It was originally circular in form, Q, like a signet ring, and Besh, a king of the I Ind dynasty, appears to have been the first to use the cartouche. Another common title of the king was PER-AA 5, i.e., “Great House,” meaning the “house in which all men live,” or the “ Asylum of the Universe," “Sublime Porte," etc., which we find in the Bible under the form of “Pharaoh.” The king being god never died, and he owed the property of immortality which he possessed to the “fluid of life” Ø munt, sa en änkh, which he obtained from Rā before his birth, for the god was believed to become incarnate from time to time, and to consort with queen after queen, so that his son might always sit on the throne of Egypt. The statues of Rā, being inhabited by his doubles, were endowed with the "fluid of life," and this they transmitted to their human counterpart, the king, by resting their hands upon his head, or by drawing them over the back of his head and down his back. The king performed the ceremonies of the “divine cult” daily, and as a result he drew from the god each day a new supply of the “fluid of life,” which justified him in adopting the title “ Endowed with life, like Rā, for ever,"

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The Queen was called either the “woman of the god," 10, or the “woman of the king," 1, but she possessed several other titles.

The official to whom the king entrusted the administration of the country was called Erpā ī, and of almost equal authority was the Tchat ze , whose equivalent in modern times is the Kâdi, or Judge.

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Other high offices were Chief Councillor, to the Town Governor, ,, the Chancellor,

1, of course, the chiefs of the nomes, the officers of the Treasury, Army, Works Department, Police and Law Courts, and Temples, each of

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Seated figure of Qen-nefer, a prince and overseer

of the palace, about .c. 1450. [Central Saloon, No. 556.] whom had his own staff. Titles often bestowed by the king were Ħā , Prince, and Smer 18. Smer-uāt n os, which mean something like “friend,” and “only friend.” Picturesque titles appear occasionally; thus one official calls

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