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Avoirdupois Weight-Continued. 4371 grains (grs.) are 1 ounce,

oz. 7,000

1 pound,

16. 2,240 pounds

“ 1 long or old ton. 20 hundredweight (cwt.)

T.

66

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Miscellaneous Table Continued.

12 dozen

are 1 gross. 144 things

1

gross. 20 quires of paper

1 ream.

Square Measure.
Used in measuring surfaces and areas, as land, flooring, etc.

144 square inches (sq. in.) are 1 square foot, sq. ft.
9 square feet

1

square yard, sq. yd.

66

Cubic Measure.

Used in measuring solid substances, such as timber, stone, the capacity of rooms, etc.

1728 cubic inches (cu. in.) are 1 cubic foot, cu. ft.
27 cubic feet

“ 1 cubic yard, cu. yd.

SEVENTH GRADE (GRAMMAR).

Long Measure-Continued. 3 feet

are 1 pace, 4 inches “ 1 hand, for measuring the height of horses. 6 feet

• 1 fathom, for measuring depths at sea. 13 statute miles “ 1 geographic, nautical mile, or knot.

Avoirdupois Weight_Continued. 60 pounds

are 1 bushel of wheat. 196

« 1 barrel of flour. 200

• 1 barrel of beef or pork. 100

“ 1 quintal of fish (dry). 621 or 1000 ounces • 1 cubic foot of water.

Troy Weight.
Used in weighing gold, silver, and jewels.

24 grains (grs.) are 1 pennyweight, pwt.
20 pwt. or

66 1 ounce,

02.

480 grs.

12 oz. or 5,760 grs.

}

- 1 pound,

16.

Apothecaries' Weight.
Used by physicians in prescribing, and by apothecaries in mixing,
dry medicines.

20 grains (grs.) are 1 scruple, sc.
3 scruples 1 dram, dr.

8 drams or
480 grains
12 ounces or

“ 1 pound, 1b.
5,760 grains
The pound, ounce, and grain of this table are identical with those of
Troy Weight. The grain of Avoirdupois Weight is the same, but the
pound is larger and the ounce smaller.

" 1 ounce,

02.

Apothecaries’ Fluid Measure.
Used by physicians in prescribing, and by apothecaries in mixing,
liquid medicines.

60 minims (m.) or drops are 1 fluid drachm, f. 3.
8 fluid drachms

of 1 fluid ounce,

f. 3.

Angular Measure.
Used in measuring angles, land, latitude and longitude, etc.

60 seconds (") are 1 minute,
60 minutes 1 degree,
90 degrees “ 1 quadrant,

quad.
4 quad., or

• 1 circumference, cir.
360 degrees
Circumference = about 34 times the diameter.

SIXTH GRADE (GRAMMAR).

Long Measure-Continued.
51 yards or 164 feet are 1 rod, perch, or pole, r. or p.
320 rods

1 mile,

m.

Square Measure--Continued.

804 square yards are 1 square rod, perch, or pole, sq. r. or sq. p.

1

Surveyors' Measure of Length.
Used in laying out railroads and roads and in marking out boundaries

100 links
66 feet are 1 chain, ch.

4 rods 80 chains 1 mile.

}

Surveyors' Measure of Surface. Used in measuring land. 16 square rods (sq. r.) are 1

square

chain. 10 chains

A.
640 acres

1
square

mile or section.
“ 1 township.

89. ch.

on 1 acre,

36 square miles

APPENDIX.

English Money.
The national currency of Great Britain ; it is often called Sterling
Money.
4 farthings (qr. or far.) are 1 penny,

d
“ 1 shilling,
20 shillings

“ 1 pound or sovereign, £.
21 shillings
“ 1 guinea,

g. The intrinsic value in U. S. money of 1 pound Sterling is $4.8665.

12 pence

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The French franc is $0.193 in U. S. money.
The German mark is $0.238 in U. S. money.

ft. yd.

}

- 1 mile,
• 1 league,

66

Linear Measure. Used in measuring lengths and distances. 12 inches (in.)

are 1 foot, 3 feet

1 yard, 51 yds. or 161 ft. 1 rod, perch, or pole, r. or p. 40 rods • 1 furlong,

fur. 8 fur., 320 rds.,

m. 1760 yds., or 5280 ft. 3 miles

l. 3 feet

1

pace, 4 inches

1 hand, for measuring the height of horses. 6 feet

1 fathom, for measuring depths at sea. 1. statute miles “ 1 geographic, nautical mile, or knot. 60 geographic or 694 statute miles

“ 1 degree on the equator.

Square Measure. Used in measuring surfaces and areas, as land, flooring, etc. 144

square inches (sq. in.) are 1 square foot, 9

“ 1 square yard, 304 square yards or 2724 square feet

1 sq. rod, perch, or pole, sq. r. or sq. p. 160 square rods

1
acre,

A.
1 square mile,

square feet

89. ft. sq. yd.

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}

640 acres

89. m.

- 1 cord,

pt.
qt.

231 cu. Its or f“ 1 gallon

· 1 peck,

pk.

Cubic Measure. Used in measuring solid "ubstances, such as timber, stone, the capacity of rooms, etc.

1728 cubic inches (cu. in.) are 1 cubic foot, cu. ft.
27 cubic feet

“ 1 cubic yard, cu. yd.
128 cubic feet

C.
Liquid Measure.
Used in measuring liquids, such as milk, wine, vinegar, molasses.

4 gills (gi.) are 1 pint,
2 pints

1 quart,
4

gal.
314 gallons
- 1 barrel,

bol.
63 gallons “ 1 hogshead, hhd.

Dry Measure.
Used in measuring grain, fruit, vegetables, salt, etc.

2 pints (pts.) are 1 quart, qt.
2 quarts

" 1 small measure.
8 quarts
4 pecks or
“ 1 bushel,

bu.
2,150.4 cu. in.

36 bushels “ 1 chaldron, ch.
Dry quart about one-sixth greater than liquid quart.

Avoirdupois Weight. Used in weighing all coarse articles, as hay, meat, groceries, and all metals except gold and silver.

4374 grains (grs.) are 1 ounce,
16 ounces or

1 pound,

16.
7,000 grains
100 pounds

“ 1 hundredweight, cwt.
20 cwt. or

T.
2,000 lb.
2,240 lb.

“ 1 long ton.
8 oz. =
1 lb.

& lb.
60 lb. are 1 bu. of wheat.
196 • 1 bbl. of flour,

1 bbl. of beef or pork.

1 quintal of fish (dry).
621 lb. or 1,000 oz. are 1 cu. ft. of water.

Cloth Measure.
Used in measuring cloths, laces, ribbons, etc.
3 ft. or 36 in. are 1 yard,

yd.
18 inches

1 half yard, } yd.
9
1 quarter yard,

À yd.
41
“ 1 eighth yard,

} yd.
21

“ 1 sixteenth yard, is yd.

02.

66 1 ton,

4 oz.

200 "
100 "

9

English Prefixes.

a--at, to, in, on: аground, abed.
be—to make: bedaub.
fore-before: foresee, forewarn.
mis—wrong: miscall.
out — beyond, more than: outlive, outdo.
over-above, beyond: overhang, overlook.
un—to reverse, not: unroll, unwise.
under-beneath: underground.
up-motion upward: upheaval.
with-from, against: withdraw, withstand.

Latin Prefixes.

The last letter of the prefixes marked * is often changed to the first syllable of the root for euphony. a, ab, abs-from, away : avert, abduct. *ad-at, to: adhere. am, amb-around: amputate, ambulance. ante-before: antecedent. bi—two: biped. circum-around: circumnavigate. *con-with, together: condole, concur. contra, contro, counter-against: contradict. de-down, from: depend, degrade. *dis-apart, not: distend, dishonor. du--two: duplicate. *e, ex-out: eject, expose. en, em-in, into, on, to make: enclose, enlarge. extra-beyond : extraordinary. *in-in, on, not: invade, indirect. inter-between, among: interrupt, intermingle. intra, intro-into, within: introduce. juxta-near: juxtaposition. mal, male--bad: malefactor. multi-many: multiform. non-not: nonsense. *ob—before, against, out: object, oppress. per---through: pervade.

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