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caused good detailed accounts of their wars to be cut upon stelae, which were set up in their capital, and in many cases these are the sole authorities for the history of the period. Thus Piānkhi (B.C. 740) gives a really fine account of his invasion and conquest of Egypt, even taking the trouble to describe the military operations connected with the siege of great cities like Memphis, his love for horses, and his devotions at Thebes and Heliopolis. Ņeru-sa-åtef, another Nubian king, gives on his stele a careful summary of his expeditions to various parts of the Sûdân, and lists of the tribute which he received. Casts of both monuments are exhibited in the Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 18, No. 815, and Central Saloon, No. 793. The Stele of Nástasen (B.C. 525) at Berlin is another good example of this class of monument, and the text, which seems to mention Cambyses, is of great interest. Finally may be mentioned the stele of the Decree of Ptolemy I (B.C. 325), granting certain properties to the temple of Buto (see the Cast in Bay 28, No. 950). The finest general account of the reign of a king is that given by Rameses III (B.C. 1200) in the Harris Papyrus No. 1, in the British Museum (No. 9999); but even in this more care is devoted to the glorification of the king than to the facts of history. The inscription of Menephthah (B.C. 1250), which is cut on the back of a stele of Amen-ḥetep III in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, though containing useful historical indications and me
2 (line 27), cannot be regarded as a serious state
ment of fact, and must be classed with the panegyric written by the court scribe Penta-urt on the exploits of Rameses II.
The Historical Romances of the Egyptians are represented by the narrative of the Capture of the town of Joppa (Harris Papyrus, No. 500), and by the Dispute between Seqenen-Rā, King of Thebes, and Apepi, King of Avaris (Sallier Papyrus, I, No. 10,185). Books of Magic are numerous, and of these may be mentioned Papyrus Salt, No. 825, and Harris Papyrus, No. 10,051. Several Mythological Legends are extant, viz., of the Resurrection of Osiris and the birth of Horus (on a stele in Paris); of the Creation of the World, Gods, and Men (British Museum Papyrus, No. 10,188); of the Wars of Heru-Beņuțet, or Horus, the War-god of Edfû (on the temple of Edfû); of the Destruction of Mankind (in the tomb of Seti I); of how Unås killed and ate the Gods (in the Pyramid of Unås); of the Poisoning of Rā the Sun-god
(papyrus at Turin); of the Death of Horus by a scorpion's sting, and his resurrection through Thoth (text on the Metternich Stele); and of the Wanderings of Isis, with her son Horus and the Seven Scorpion-goddesses, in the Delta (text on the Metternich Stele). The History of Osiris, and of his murder by Set, has not yet been found in Egyptian texts in a complete form, but there are frequent allusions to this history in the inscriptions of all periods, and it is clear that we have a tolerably accurate version of it in the narrative written by Plutarch (De Iside et Osiride).
Among the Legal Documents in the British Museum may be mentioned the papyri containing accounts of the prosecution of the robbers who broke into and plundered the royal tombs under the XXth dynasty (Papyri Abbott, Nos. 10,221 and 10,052), and the process against a man who was charged with stealing a quantity of silver (Nos. 10,053, 10,054). Songs and Poetry are represented by the Love Songs contained in the Harris Papyrus, No. 500 ; the Song of Antuf, which was sung to the accompaniment of the harp (Harris Papyrus, No. 500); and the Song of the Harper, written on the wall of a tomb at Thebes, in which the hearers are enjoined to be happy, to anoint and scent themselves, and to rejoice with music and song, until the day cometh when they must depart to the land "which loveth silence." The mutability of things, and the fleetingness of the world are also dwelt upon. The works enumerated in the above paragraphs are written in hieroglyphics and hieratic. The literature written in demotic is considerable, and it consists of books of magic, tales and stories, collections of moral aphorisms, legal documents, marriage contracts, etc.
AND CUSTOMS. MARRIAGE. POLYGAMY. HONOUR PAID TO THE MOTHER. THE CHILD AND ITS NAME.
Toys. EDUCATION. DRESS. FOOD. AMUSEMENTS. DWELLING HOUSES AND FURNITURE. AGRICULTURE AND CATTLE BREEDING. TRADE. HANDICRAFTS.
Manners and Customs.-The views of the Egyptians about marriage closely resemble those held by many African tribes, for they married their sisters and nieces, and sometimes indulged in polygamy. It is probable that the views as to marriage which obtained generally in Egypt were less rigid than those of Western nations. According to an ancient legend Osiris married his sister Isis, who became by him the mother of Horus, and he was also the father of Anubis by his other sister Nephthys. Generally speaking, the Egyptian was the husband of one wife, who was the mistress of his house and the mother of his children, whether she was his sister, or his niece, or a stranger. Kings and noblemen married several wives, and became fathers of children by many of the women of their households. The Ptolemies, curiously enough, seeing that they were Greeks, married their sisters and nieces, like the Egyptians. Marriage in Egypt was, no doubt, arranged in the way common to the East, i.e., it was practically a business transaction, great care being taken to provide for the maintenance of the woman in the event of misbehaviour either on her part or that of her husband. Whether any religious ceremony was performed at the marriage is unknown. Girls were married before they were fourteen years of age. The legitimate wife of a man is called “ Nebt pa,"
, i.e., "lady of the house," and she might of course, be “his beloved sister"; frequently, however, the latter title is a euphemism for “mistress,” or “concubine.” To divorce or eject the "lady of the house” was a very
1 The Muḥammadan speaks of his wife as his “house," and the determinative to the Egyptian word shows that the ancient Egyptian held the same idea about his wife as the modern Arab.
difficult matter, and it was probably the fear of possible pecuniary complications which caused the Egyptian in so many cases to marry his sister or the woman whom he called by that name.
Moreover, it was thus easier to keep the property in the husband's family.
the legal wife was one of the freest women in the world. She went about the house, and outside it, at will, and, unlike the modern Egyptian women, she wore no veil. If she pleased, she held converse with inen in the village or market, and she suffered from none of the restrictions which are placed upon women
in the East in modern times. When the wife became a mother her power and influence were greatly increased, and the literature of ancient Egypt contains many passages which illustrate the honour and esteem in which the “mistress of the house” was held by her children, and on scores of stelae in the Egyptian Galleries the name of the mother of the deceased is given, whilst that of his father is not mentioned. The Egyptians, like many African tribes, traced their descent through their mothers, and the views which they held concerning the affection due to the wife from her husband, and the love which a son should give to his mother, are well illustrated by two passages. In the Precepts of Ptah-ḥetep (B.C. 3200): “If “thou wouldst be a wise man, rule thy house and love thy
wife wholly and constantly. Feed her and clothe her, love "her tenderly, and full her desires as long as thou livest, for "she is an estate which conferreth great reward upon her lord. "Be not hard to her, for she will be more easily moved by
persuasion than by force. Observe what she wisheth, and that "on which her mind runneth; thereby shalt thou make her " to stay in thy house. If thou resistest her will it is ruin." In the Precepts of Khensu-Hetep (B.C. 1500) we read: “When thou art grown up, and art married, and hast a house, “never forget the pains which thou didst cost thy mother, “nor the care which she bestowed upon thee. Never give “her cause to complain of thee, lest she lift up her hands to “God in heaven, and He hearken to her cry [and punish “thee].”
The life of the woman in the lower classes was a hard one. She cooked the food for her husband and children, she wove the flax into linen, attended to all matters in the house, and usually managed to have a large family. She was a mother at the age of fifteen, or earlier, and a grandmother at thirty, by which time her body was bent, her forehead wrinkled, and her face withered. Among the upper classes the process of
physical deterioration was, of course, slower, but the results were the same.
Soon after a child was born a name was given to it, which usually had reference to some physical characteristic; thus a boy might be called “Nekht” y “Strong,” and a'girl “Nefert”
"Netchemet” « Sweet." Pious folk introduced the name of some god or goddess into the child's name, e.g., “Rā-hetep”
“ Rā is satisfied,” and loyal folk the name of the reigning king, e.g.,
“” members of a family often bore the same name, but in these cases each was distinguished by some "little name” (i.e., petname). As a pet-name may be mentioned “Mai-sheraui,” ” "
In well-todo families a special day was set apart for naming a child, and this name-day was usually celebrated with rejoicings.
For the first three years of its life a child was wholly in its mother's care, and she carried it about on her back or left shoulder (see the ivory figure No. 41 in Table-case L in the Third Egyptian Room). For the next three or four years of its life it went about naked, whether boy or girl, gentle or simple; indeed a grandson of Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid, went to school unclothed. The heads of children were clean-shaven, with the exception of a lock of hair on the right side of the head. Little girls sometimes wore an amulet on their breast or body in order to avert the "evil eye,” and perhaps a cheap bracelet or necklace. They played with dolls, numerous examples of which have come down to us (see Standard-case C in the Fourth Egyptian Room). Like all children, Egyptian children loved toys of all kinds. As examples of these may be mentioned the cat with a movable lower jaw, the elephant and his rider, each having movable limbs, the negro being pursued by an animal, the ape drawing a chariot, the cat-headed dwarf, the lion killing its prey, the toy dog, hippopotamus, etc. The balls they played with were made of porcelain, papyrus, leather stuffed with chopped straw, etc. (See Standard-case C.)
Education. It is doubtful if the children of peasants and of the lowest classes went to school, or received any education at all; both boys and girls were probably sent to herd the ·