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59.398 24,688




Slave Trade Report.

United States has been upheld

in all the territories, as it is “The execution of the laws for

hoped it will be in the future. the suppression of the African I commend their interests and slave trade has been confided to defence to the enlightened and the Department of the Interior. It is a subject of congratulation that generous care of Congress.” the efforts which have been made the United States at this time was

The strength of the army of for the suppression of this in given in the report of the Secrehuman traffic have been recently tary of War, as follows:attended with unusual success. Five vessels being fitted out for the slave trade have been seized

Regu- Aggreand condemned. Two mates

Infantry ..

568,383 engaged in the trade and one


20,380 person in equipping a vessel as

Rifles and Sharpa slaver have been convicted, and

8,395 Eogineers

107 subjected to the penalty of a fine

107 and imprisonment; and one cap

640,637 | 20,331 660,971 tain taken with a cargo of Africans on board his vessel has been

In this report he also stated:convicted of the highest grade

"The appropriations asked for of offence under our laws, the the service of the next fiscal year punishment of which is death.

are computed for a force of "The New Territories in the West.

500,000 men.

I propose, with

the object of reducing the VolunThe territorries of Colorado, teer force to 500,000, with the Dacotah, and Nevada, created by consent of Congress, to consolithe last Congress, have been or- date such of the regiments as ganized, and civil administration may from time to time fall below has been inaugurated therein the regulation standard.

The under auspices especially gratify- adoption of this measure will deing, when it is considered that crease the number of officers, and the leaven of treason was found proportionably diminish the exexisting in some of these new penses of the army. The disaster countries when the Federal offi- of Bull's Run was but the natural cers arrived there. The abundant consequence of the premature adnatural resources of these terri- vance of our brave, but undistories, with the security and pro- ciplined, troops, which the imtection afforded by organized Go- patience of the country demanded. vernment, will doubtless invite The betrayal, also, of our moveto them a large immigration when ments by traitors in our midst peace shall restore the business enabled the rebels to choose and of the country to its accustomed intrench their position, and by a channels. I submit the resolu- reinforcement in great strength, tions of the Legislature of Colo- at the moment of victory, to rado, which evidence the patriotic snatch it from our grasp.” spirit of the people of the terri- In the report of the Secretary tory. So far the authority of the of the Navy, the following account was given of the employment of coast, inner and outer—would the marine force of the United admit. Our principal naval vesStates during the civil war:- sels are not, from their great

“ The limited number of ships draught of water, adapted to and men at command when the blockade service on our shallow proclamation announcing the coast, which has been guarded blockade of the ports of the in- with extreme difficulty. The surgent States was issued, and ports of North Carolina espethe inadequate means provided cially, situated within the interior by the last Congress for the emer- shallow waters of their sounds gency, devolved upon the De- and inlets, afforded peculiar facipartment the necessity for calling lities to a class of small vessels, into immediate service not only aided by fraudulent papers and all the naval forces, but vessels foreign flags, to elude the vigifrom the commercial marine. lance of the sentinel ships whose Purchases were accordingly made special duty it was to interdict and charters hastily executed for commerce with the insurgents. the exigency, and orders peremp- The duty of guarding the coast, torily issued to forthwith equip and enforcing the blockade, has aud prepare for service the public been one of great labour, as well vessels that were dismantled and as ceaseless vigilance and responin ordinary at the several yards. sibility. With the steadily-inThe force thus hastily gathered creasing force that added to the was placed along our coast, and squadrons, the efforts of the individed into two squadrons, one surgents to elude our ships were of which, designated as the At- also increased, in order to supply lantic Blockading Squadron, had the pressing necessities that affor its field of operation the whole flicted the whole of the rebel coast extending from the eastern- States. The duties imposed upon most line of Virginia to Cape Flo- the flag-officers became correrida, and was under the command spondingly arduous, and eventuof Flag-officer Silas H. String- ally more extensive in their opeham. The other, or Gulf Squad- ration and detail than could be ron, operating from Cape Florida well executed by one commander. westward to Rio Grande, was A vigilant watch has been maincommanded by Flag-officer Wil- tained at the passes of the Misliam Mervine. These officers sissippi, by which the commerce repaired to their stations, and of New Orleans has been sucwere reinforced from time to cessfully interdicted. The task time by the arrival of such ves. of blockading the coast is unsels as were despatched to their attractive, and devoid of advencommands, and under their su- ture. Those who have engaged pervision and direction all the in this rebellion have neither ports upon their stations were commerce nor a navy to reward subjected to a blockade as rigid or stimulate to exertion.

One and effective as the peculiar na- method of blockading the ports ture of our maritime frontier- of the insurgent States and interwhich has, through a large por- dicting communication, as well tion of its entire extent, a double as to prevent the egress of privateers which sought to depredate feat of the Federal forces. Appaon our commerce, has been that rently nothing can shake the of sinking in the channels ves- stern resolution of the South, sels laden with stone. The first which hates the Union with a movement in this direction was hatred of which it is difficult for on the North Carolina coast, us to form an idea; and it dewhere there are numerous inlets clares its determination to suffer to Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds anything and everything, rather and other interior waters, which than submit to the domination afforded facilities for eluding the of the North. But it is fearfully blockade, and also to the pri- overınatched in numbers and revateers. For this purpose a class sources; and the blockade of its of small vessels were purchased ports cuts it off from all external in Baltimore, some of which have supplies, and isolates it from the been placed in Ocracoke Inlet. rest of the world. It remains to Another and larger description be seen how far it will be able to of vessels were bought in the cope with the enormous masses eastern market, most of them of men whom the North will be such as were formerly employed able to bring into the field, and in the whale fisheries. These especially whether it can contend were sent to obstruct the chan- against the naval force of its opnels of Charleston harbour and ponents; and by this we mean not the Savannah River; and this, if only sea-going ships, but gun-boats effectually done, will prove the and other armed craft, which will most economical and satisfactory be able to penetrate the great method of interdicting commerce rivers that intersect the contiat those points."

nent, and thus afford a support to At the close of the year the the armies of the invader against balance of success was certainly which the South has nothing in favour of the South. Its policy equivalent to oppose. If, for inwas simply a defensive policy, stance, a steam flotilla from the and all it asked was to be let North can force its way down alone. The North, on the other the Mississippi, the Confederate hand, had undertaken the task positions will be in great danger of conquest, and unless it could of being taken in flank, and the pursue a career of victorious in Border States will be reached by vasion, it failed. But not one an invading army with for more inch of territory had been reco- ease than could possibly be the vered to the Union since the case if there were no navigable Secession began. The Confede. river. But it is idle to speculate rate army lay entrenched on the on the future course of this trePotomac, and threatened Wash- mendous contest. Our next ington, and the only serious battle volume will, no doubt, have to had resulted in a disastrous de record some momentous results.


JANUARY, 1861.


THE CHRISTMAS WEATHER. at Hartwell, 650.7; Petersfield, The intense cold which 630.7; Diss, 63o.

The greatest marked the Christmas of 1860, daily variation was found at Diss was followed by a singular rise in and some other places, equal to the temperature during the night nearly 14°; while that at Scarwhich marks "the Old Year out, borough, Guernsey, and Ventnor the New Year in,” but resumed its was about 6° or 7o. As might be intensity on the night between anticipated, no rain fell during the January 1st and 2nd, and main- cold weather; and the whole quartained the character of the season ter was rather dry, though not less as the coldest ever remembered than 14 inches of rain fell at until the 24th, when there was a Allenheads. On the other hand, sudden rise of temperature which the wind was sometimes extremely continued to the end of the quar- high: a very heavy gale blew for 16 ter; so that the average of the 67 hours on the 21st February, with days was 3o.3 in excess of the a force varying from 3 lbs. to usual average of the correspond- 25 lbs. From 5 P.M. to 9 P.M. on ing period.

that day the force was equal to The mean temperature of the from 13 lbs. to 15 lbs. first half of January was less than Notwithstanding the intense that of the corresponding period cold of one period of this quarter, for 20 years. Only in 1814 and the condition of the public health 1820 has so great an average de- was not unfavourable—the morgree of cold been recorded : the tality was even lower than the respective values of the three years average. The deaths were 121,713, being, 1814, 25o6; 1820, 240.9; or 2.449 in every 1000, the gene1861, 28o3. In 1777 the mean ral proportion of the quarter being temperature of January was 290.9; 2.480. The births were 173,170, in 1776, 27o; in 1780, 280.6; in less by 10,036 in the correspond1795, 23° 9'.

ing quarter of 1860, which was The localities in which the most however, unusually prolific : the intense cold was officially recorded natural increase on the population were-Diss, lo; Holkham, 3o.3; was, therefore, 51,457, or 572 daily. Norwich, 4o; Lampeter, 4o2. The 66,802 persons were married, a highest temperature was marked considerable falling off from the VOL. CIII.


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