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E. What is a duct, Sir?
T.-Do you know what a gland is? No: then remember that it consists of a number of cells, or little reservoirs that have the power of absorbing and retaining a watery fluid from the blood, as it circulates through the body. Beneath this true skin, between it and the muscles, lie a great quantity of these minute glands, and it is from these that the ducts (or little tubes, resembling the pores of sponge,) spring, piercing the true skin towards the surface where they open, their opening being covered with a little valve, to prevent anything from going in and stopping up the passage.
E. But what, then, is the passage for?
T.-The little glands we have mentioned retain or secrete the liquid they have extracted from the blood, till its place is taken by more, when it is poured forth through these ducts.
E. What becomes of it, Sir?
T.-It forces open the valves with which the scarf skin is fitted, and which correspond exactly with the ducts below them, and passes out upon the surface of the body.
E.-Is this called perspiration? Why, I never thought of that. T.-Very likely, Edwin; and had others observed as little as we do what is taking place around us, we should not know the cause of this, or of many more wonderful things. This perspiration is constantly going on; but at times when we are asleep or inactive, it is insensible Do you understand this? The external surface of this true skin is rough, owing to a great number of small elevations, like those on the peel of an orange, only much smaller, and in each of them is lodged the temination of a nerve. These elevations you may see plainly with a microscope; they are arranged sometimes, as in the palm of the hand, in regular rows. According to the number of these in any given part is the sensibility of that part.
E. Then if there are many we feel more easily, and if there are few we feel less?
T.-Yes, it is so. Is this skin thicker in animals than it is in man? E. Yes, Sir; because leather is made of the skin of animals: and there is our donkey, what a thick skin it has, I can hardly make it feel.
T.-That is not owing to the thickness of its skin; and it feels the blows you give it perhaps as much as if it had a thinner skin. Its temper leads you to believe it is deficient in sensibility; but it is not necessary that because an animal has a thick skin it cannot feel so acutely. I remember a remarkable observation that I met with in Capt. Hall's travels, about the whale's fine sense of feeling. These animals possess a power of communicating with each other at a great distance, by a peculiar motion of the water, either designedly, or by their efforts to regain their liberty when caught; so that a shoal at a distance of many miles will soon bear down to assist their captivated companion or companions. Now these motions must be propagated through the water, and communicated to the immense surface of skin that is presented by the distant whales. You know, I suppose, that the skin of the whale is prodigiously thick, and is made into oil? It is much thicker than your donkey's, Edwin.
E. But how does Capt. Hall know that the whales talk in this way.
T.-In the first place, the keen sensibility of the whale, even through all its blubber, has been tested. In the second, the communication could have been effected in no other way that we know of in so short a time. And, thirdly, because we have seen many instances among other animals and insects in which intelligence has been carried in the same manner, although with the latter through a different element.
E. Do tell me, Sir, please, some of them.
T.-I will, Edwin, in their place; but let us now go on to talk about the scarf skin.
E. Yes, Sir: Why is it called scarf skin?
T.-It is a layer of a semi-transparent membrane, as fine as the network of a scarf; and this skin covers the whole exterior surface of the true skin. I told you just now that the sensibility of the true skin was very great, and it would be too keen if this skin did not protect the nerves with which it is furnished from impressions of too strong a naThe thickness of the scarf skin is therefore adapted to the sense of the part it covers: it is of thin substance upon any part where the sense of feeling is acute, to allow of the transmission of delicate impressions, and the contrary. Now can you tell me where it is thin?
E. Oh, yes, Sir, on the lips: and I have heard that the tips of the fingers are very sensitive, particularly those of the blind, who read by means of their fingers, which they move rapidly over raised letters.
T. And the hard portions are found
E-In the palms of the hands, and at the soles of the feet.
T.-Yes, it would be painful to grasp any thing if the nerves in our hands were as much exposed as they are at many other parts; and we should walk with great difficulty if the soles of our feet were very sensitive; but as the parts of those limbs that have to sustain the weight of the body are well protected, we can work and walk with ease. In man, Edwin, the outer layers of this scarf skin are continually being worn off and reproduced.
E. What! like the shells of the crabs we have often picked up at the sea-side, between the stones.
T.-Yes, for these hard plates, as well as the scales, and coverings of hair found on other animals, are similar to our scarf skin, and answer the same purpose of protection.
E. These shells are more like our nails, Sir.
T.-Yes, only we do not shed our nails every year like the snake does a portion of the skin of his head, the crab his thick pent-house, or the bird his beak.
E-I wonder they know one another again!
T.-If you become a naturalist you will find much to wonder at, and much to discover; but it is time for you to go now, and be ready to tell me, the next time we meet, what are our special organs of feeling.
THERE are two excellent though obvious means of happiness; to make duty a pleasure, and to cultivate the habit of contemplating our advantages rather than our misfortunes.
THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL MAGAZINE.
We must confess that we are glad to see this subject brought under discussion. It is one upon which we have long held a decided opinion, and it is high time that the teachers of our schools should be led to consider the reasons and arguments upon which the system, for such it has become, is grounded and defended. As Sunday-schools were, institutions for the instruction of a few poor children who were taught to read, to spell, to write, or to learn, as a mere act of memory, it is just possible that a class would derive as much benefit under two teachers as under one; but as Sunday-schools now are, institutions for training in religious truth, an instrumentality for the conversion of the soul, a pastorate for the teacher, as well as a Sabbath-day obligation, we can first of all see no reason why the small demand should not be supplied; and next we cannot understand in what way this plan can be considered beneficial to teacher, school, or class.
The morning teacher may be pious, lively, engaging, intellectual, persevering, and his class will be devoted to him; the afternoon teacher may be undecided, without tact, unpunctual, uninterested, and unpopular. The class will be early in the morning, late or absent in the afternoon; will derive profit in the morning, and will feel the afternoon irksome and ill employed. Is it fair to the good teacher, thus to undermine his influence, or to the class thus to hazard their progress?
Then the school is ill supplied with teachers; there are 20 classes, and only 16 are provided for; but these 16 classes have 32 teachers, 12 more than the whole school needs. If the rule or practice of this school had been to have no teachers who could not make their class their own, how
many of these 32 would have been hindered coming? Suppose a third, you would still have more than your school required, and with how much more of interest, energy, method and success would these dear friends work! The exception has become a system. It is an indulgence, an excuse too often, and its extended operation does not tell well for our cause. There may be cases where sisters can unite, and where friends can co-work; but the plan now, as in practice, does not command this, and must in our judgment prove extensively injurious. When we hear of half-day, fortnightly, monthly, and even quarterly teachers, we feel that the question becomes one of serious difficulty. We must cease to ask a young man to come and join in a class. We must ask for that which in most cases will be cheerfully given, the whole time, for the unshared and uninterrupted duties of the Sunday-school.
It is said, that the persons who are chiefly engaged, in this divided labour are those who are most occupied, and most important to the school. We admit that this is so in some cases, but our own experience leads us to say, that the large majority of half-day teachers are those whose hearts thoroughly enlisted in the work, would at once abandon the system, and feel that they had no class, unless their class was entirely their own.
SUNDAY-SCHOOL CONFERENCES. We present in this Number, an outline of proceedings at the LONDON CONFER ENCE. The LEEDS UNION COMMITTEE, with most praiseworthy spirit, has published a complete report of the Conference held in that town recently. We urge our friends, most emphatically, to obtain a copy of this valuable document, which may be had, post-free, on enclosing sixpence, to Mr. Heaton, 7, Briggate, Leeds.
The sixth was August, being rich array'd In garments all of gold down to the ground;
et rode he not, but led a lovely maid Forth by the lily hand, the which was crown'd
With ears of corn and full her hand was found." SPENSER.
his month, Augustus, corresponds with the twelfth historical month Elul, of the Jews: it was called weod month by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning the bonny earth is clothed or covered. It is called Augustus, after the Emperor, because the senate considered the month Sextilis to have been a most happy month to the empire. The Emperor added a day to it, depriving February of one for this purpose. September and November were at the same time deprived, and the odd day given to October and December.
This day was the ancient Lammasday, the commencement of harvest in England. In 1351, Edward III., it was enacted, that no carter, ploughman, dairy, (dairy-maid,) or other servant, shall take in the time of hay-making but a penny the day, and reapers of corn, in the first week of August two-pence; the second three-pence; and so to the end of August.
On this day, Columbus first sets his foot on the New World, 1498. The victory, or as Nelson called it, conquest in the Nile, 1798.
The Emancipation of the Slaves, 1834.
2. The victory of Blenheim, 1704. Upon this day, annually, a banner of France must be presented by the holder of Woodstock to the Queen or King of England.
3. Sir Richard Arkwright died, 1792.
In 678, a morning comet, shaped like a fiery pillar, was seen in England for three months, and was the
The island of Madagascar is discovered, 1506.
Dr. R. Mead born at Stepney, 1673. Noah sends forth the dove again, on Saturday, who returns no more. Rev. Rowland Hill born, 1744. 13. Jeremy Taylor died, 1667. 15. Napoleon Buonaparte born, 1769.
Sir Walter Scott born, 1771. 17. This day is a Hebrew fast for the destruction of those spies who slandered the land of promise; Numb. xiv.
In the year 1348, the European Continent was visited by a threefold Scourge - earthquakes, deluges of rain, and a vast ephemeral pestilence. The first appeared in England, at Dorchester, on this day. The Islands were decimated.
21. The great solar eclipse which first turned the attention of Tycho Brahe, at the age of fourteen, to the science of astronomy, 1560.
24. The massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1572. The total number of victims was 70,000.
Two thousand ministers deprived by the Act of Uniformity, 1662.
James Watt, the inventor of the steam-engine, died, 1819.
Sir Wm. Herschell died, 1822.
Julius Cæsar lands eight miles north of Dover, on British ground, B.C. 55.
The Children's Separate Service.
THE MISSIONARY SERMON.
"The children gather the wood." MORE than one thousand two hundred years since some English boys and girls were carried for sale into the slave-market at Rome. A generous man, who gazed upon their beautiful countenances, lamented their condition, and remarked, "They have angelic faces, it is a pity they are not co-heirs with angels." This good man, afterwards called Gregory the Great, thought much of England, and soon afterwards sent Augustine and forty missionaries to this country to teach the people the way of salvation.
Since that time the Scriptures have been translated and printed. Many million copies have been circulated, Sunday-schools have been opened, and many thousands of children have been gathered into the Saviour's heavenly fold.
you live in a land of Bibles and
Now look at the text. It is a representation of idolatrous worship. The people are presenting offerings to false deities; the fathers are kindling the fire, and the mothers are making cakes for the queen of heaven. Yes, and the children are very busy in gathering the wood. How sad is the picture. How thankful you might be that
1. Youthful-Some people think children have nothing to do wit missions. This is a great mistake In idolatrous countries, they prac tise many cruelties upon their poor helpless babes : some of the mother cast their lovely children into the
Now some of these Sabbath-river Ganges, as an offering to their scholars, like the poor monks who god, and others make their offspring came to visit our country, have to pass through the fire of Moloch gone as missionaries to heathen na- When Mr. Moffat was in this coun tions. But they must be supported, try, he had a little girl called Sarah and since some of you sent them in Roby, that he had rescued alive a beautiful new ship, called the from a deep pit, into which she had John Williams, I have been think- been cast by her cruel mother ing you might do something to This is often the case when food is maintain them while preaching the scarce; the mother will dig a pit unsearchable riches of Christ. and bury her child alive. Now who would not like to put a stop to these cruelties practised upon poor helpless, innocent children? Methinks some of you would like to make their parents better and kinder to them. Well the gospel makes people love the bodies and souls of their children. You may help to send Bibles and Missionaries, by gathering wood or pro